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217 terms

A & P

STUDY
PLAY
Grow, reproduce, responed & adapt to their environmennts
characteristics of most living organisms include the ability to
waste products of metabolism are eliminated through the process of
excreation
the study of the first few weeks of life are called
embryology
the study of structures using special imaging techniques is
radiographic anatomy
an ear, nose, and throat specialist is concerned primarily with the study of
regional anatomy
the study of function is to physiology
as the study of form is to anatomy
the study of tissues is called
histology
all of the chemical & physical changes taking place in the body refer to
metabolism
the production of anorther human organism is the function of which system
reproductive
the internal transport of blood and dissolve substances is the function of what system
cardiovascular system
the trachea and lungs are componets of what system
respiratory system
gas exchange is the function of what system
the respiratory system
which of the following are parts of a homestatic mechanism
receptors, control center, & effector
a personthat is laying on thei stomach is said to be in the
prone position
indicates the front of the body
anterior & ventral
term that indicate medial to the breast
sternum
the wrist is considered to be what to the elbow
distal
what region corresponds to the lower back
lumbar
what region corresponds to the foot
pedal
a cut passing through the midline of the body that sivides it into equal left and right halves is known as
midsagittal
the diaphragm seperates what cavity from what cavity
thoracic & abdominopelvic
the peritoneal cavity contains the
small intestines
what technique is used to check a pregnant womans fetus that uses sound waves
ultra sound
which sectional plane could be used to divide a body so that the face remains intact
coronal plane
skin is considered to what
an organ
a collection of cells that work together is considered to be what
tissue
reffering to the back means
dorsal
the heart is surrounded by what membrane
pericardial
the membrane coving the surface of the heart is referred to as the
visceral pericardium
what term refers to the wrist
carpus
a person lying in the anatomical position is said to be in what position
supine
a structure that senses chang is called what
receptor
the tendency for physiological system to stabilize internal condidtions with respect to the external environment is called what
homeostasis
the branch of biological science that deal with how the kidney function is called what
renal physiology
the study of the body structure is called what
anatomy
principal elements of the human body are
hydrogen, sulfur, iron,& iodine
the best definition of matter is
has weight and takes up space
in a exegonic reaction
energy is released during the reaction
calicum atoms have 2 eletrons in the outermost shell. as a result, one would expect calcium to form ions with a charge of
+2
an excess of hydrogen ions in the body fluids have disastrous results because
excess hydrogen ions can break chemical bonds, they can change the shape of large complex molecules, making them non-functional, can disrupt tissue function, & can kill living cells
enzymes are
proteins, function as biological catalysts, lower the activation energy for a reaction,& affect the rate of a chemical reaction
chemical reactions that occur in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called
enzymes
nucleic acids are composed of units called
nucleotides
molecules that perform most cellular work are called
proteins
functions of proteins are
support,transport, movement, & metabolic regulation
lipids are used for
essential structural componets of cells, provide roughly twices as much energy as carbohydrates, help maintain body temperature, & help cushion delicate organs from damage
a polysaccharide that cannot be digested by humans
cellulose
carbohydrate molecules may be used for
primary enrgy storage molecule, part of nucleic acid structure, the body's most important source of energy, & receptors of the cell surface
inorganic acids in the body are
hydrochloric, carbonic, sulfuric, & phosphoric
it is important to keep pH regulated because an imbalance in H+ concentration cn cause
structural damage, deactivation of wnzymes, overactivation of enzymes, & unwated chemical reactions
during ionization, water molecules disrupt the ionic bonds of aa solute, resulting in a mixture of ions. These ions are called
electrolytes
carbon dioxide is
composed of nonpolar molecules, can pass easily through a cell membrane, it dissolves in water, & it is waste product
what is the most abudant chemical compound in the human body
water
a substance that has a pH of greater than 7 it is said to be
alkaline
how many electrons do MOST atoms need intheir outer shell to be stable
8
ionic bonds are formed when
cations & anions are held together by their opposite charges
ions with a postive charge are called
cations
positively charged subatomic particles are called
protons
the mass number represents the number of
protons & neutrons
electron have what type of charge
negative charge
the simplest unit of matter is
an atom
acid
solute that dissociates to release hydrogen ions
base
a solute that removes hydrgen ions
buffer
compounds that stabilize pH
solution
consists of a fluid solvent and dissolves solutes
water
the most important body constituent
monosaccharides
glucose, frutose
disaccharides
lactose, sucrose
polysaccharides
glycogen
fatty acids
lauric acid,
steroids
cholesterol
glycerides
digglycerides, triglycerides, monoglycerides
The term cancer refers to
an illness characterized by miligant cells, neoplasms that have the tendency to metastasize to new sites, any of various malignant neoplasms
transcription occurs in the
nucleus
the classes of membrane proteins that permit water and solutes to bypass the lipid portion of the cell are
channel proteins
the phosphate group of phospholipids is
polar & hydrophilic
the process that seperates solids particles from liquids is known as
filtration
the cellular organelle responsible for recycling intracellular protein is called
proteosome
cellular organelles are located within the
cystoplasm
the cell membrane
protects the cell and acts as a filter
when sodium ione are moved across the cell membrane against concentration gradient
celluar ATP is used
if someone sweats profuselyand loses large amounts of water, the result will be that the blood plasma becomes to the cells
hyoertonic
if a cell lecked ribosomes, it would not be able to
synthesize proteins
Before a cell can divide by mitiosis, what must occur
replication of DNA
hemolysis occurs when a bood cell is places into
hypotonic solution
cilia are found in
cells that are required to move a fluid medium along their surface
the nucleus stores all the information needed to synthesize which of the following molecules
proteins
the control center for celluar operations is the
nucleus
the cell's DNA is located in the
nucleus
when activated, lysosomes function in
digestion of fereign materials
renewal or modification of the cell membrane is a function of the
golgi apparatus
Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the
mitochondria
flagella moves a cell through a fluid medium. What moves the fluid medium across the surface of the cells
cilia
componets of the cystoskeleton include
microfilaments, microtbules, protein, & myosin
the packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle at the cell surface for importation into the cell is called
endocytosis
the process that requires cellular energy to move a substance againt its concentration gradient is called
active transport
the process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins is called
passive transport
the following are functions of skeletal muscles
produce movement, maintain posture, & maintain body teperature
the following are statements about what muscle the contractions of skeletal muscles pull on tendons & move elements of the skeleton, skeletal muscles are responsible for guarding the openings of the digestive & urinary tracts, skeletal muscles support the weight of some internal organs, & the skeletal muscles contractions help maintain body temperature
skeletal muscles
myofibrils are made primarily of
actin & myosin
nerves & blood vessels that services the muscle fibers are located in the connective tissue of the
perimysium
the delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers & ties adjacent muscle fibers together is the
endomysium
neurotransmitters that cause skeletal muscle contraction are normally stored in
motor neuron endings
skeletal muscle fibers differ from typical cells in that these muscle fibers
have many nuclei
the cystoplasm of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the
sarcoplasm
a muscle cramp is most likely due to a lack of
ATP
the smooth but steady increase in muscle tension produces by increasing the number of active motor units is called
recruitment
when energy reserves in a muscle exhausted or lactic acid levels increase
fatique occurs
activities that require anaerobic endurance
require maximal contraction of muscles for short periods of time
the following are characteristics of cardiac muscle
cardiac muscle fibers areare uninucleate, cardiac muscles cannot be tetanized, cardiac muscles contain sarcomeres, & neurons that innervate cardiac muscles are under involuntary control
non-striated, involuntary muscle is
smooth
a muscle of mastication is
mentalis
the following are descriptive terms for a muscle's action
levator, extensor, tensor, & adductor
muscles ending in the suffix -coastal would be found in the
chest
rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to
decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium
in recording a muscle twitch, the delay between the stimulus and the muscle response is called
latent period
the brief moment following stimulation when a muscle is unresponsive to anorther stimulus is called
refactory period
the following describes the action of the trapezius
retracts the shoulder & adducts the scapula
the muscle that adducts & extends the humerus is the
latissimus dorsi
the muscle that extends the arm while doing push-ups is the
triceps brachii
in additin to the type & number of muscle fibers in a muscle, peak athletic performance requires
a good blood supply & system of blood delivery, a well-developed respiratory system, the coordination of the nervous system, & a good supply of nutrients.
the following are consequences of aging
muscle fibers become smaller in diameter, muscles become less elastic, muscles fatique more rapidly, & muscles fibers become less efficient.
the following is considered a postural muscle
erector spinae
this hormone regulates calcium & phosohate ion concentrations
calcitonin & parathyroid hormone
Vitamin D, is a necessay componet for Ca2+ absorption from the intestine, it is synthesized by what system
integumentary system
contraction during muscle lengethening is called
eccentric contraction
what hormone stimulates growth of muscle tissue & increases muscle mass
testosterone
this activity would employ isometric contractions
maintaining an upright posture
increased oxygen consumption would accompany the following
increased heat production, increased lactic acid to glucose, increased aerobic respiration by muscle cells, & increased muscle activity.
you having problems plantar flexing & inverting your right foot, what muscles are involved in these activities?
soleus & gastrocnmius
a trumpet player ask which muscles should he develop in order to be a better trumpter
the buccinator & orbicularis oris
a term used to describe a number of geneticly inherited diseases characterized by progressive muscular weakness & deterioration is
musclular dystrophy
rigor mortisoccurs at death due to a lack of
ATP
the bacterium that causes tetanus is
clostridium tetani
this condition occurs when an organ protudes through an abnormal opening
ha sheath surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber is called enrnia
the muscular system includes approx. how many skeletal muscles which can be voluntary controlled
700
glycolysis is considered what process
anaerobic
what protein works with myosin & is responsible for muscle contraction & relaxation
actin
what part of a muscle contains sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, filaments, & myofibrils
fiber
a sheath surrounding eachskeletal muscle fiber is called
endomysium
what are bands o collagen fibers that attach skeletal muscles to bone called
tendons
each of the following are functions of the nervous system
providing sensation of the internal & extrnal environments, intergarating sensory information, regulating or controling peripheral structures & systems
the brain & spinal cord comprimise the
central nervous system
the cystoplasmic extensions that, together with the cell body, provise the main receptive surfaces for neurons are
dendrites
the part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central neverous system is the
efferent division
masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear
white
the largest & most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the
astrocytes
the myelin sheaths that surround the axona of some of the neurons in the CNA are formed by
oligodendrocytes
the following is a glial cell
astrocytes, Achwann cell, microlia, & ependymal cells
small phagocytic cells that are especially obvious in damaged tissue in the CNS are the
microlia
the following are a list of parts of a reflex arc in the correct order
receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector
cells responsible for information processing & transfer are
neurons
neurons that have one axon & one dendrite with the soma between them are called
bipolar
neurons that have several dendrites & a single axon extending away from the soma are called
multipolar
these are found only in the central nervous system
interneurons
these block pain
endorphins
when a neuron is at rest what ion passes through its membrane most easily
potassium ions
most neurons in the brain are
multipolar
neurons normally derive ATP solely through
aerobic resperation
neural reflexes
are automatic motor responses, are triggered by specific stimuli, help preserve homeostasis, show little variability in response
reflexes help control
heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, & pupil size
the specialized membranes that protect the spinal cord are termed
spinal meninges
blood vessels servicing the spinal cord are found in the
pia matter
pulling away from a painful stimulus is an example of what reflex
withdrawal reflex
the glial cells responsible for maintaining the blood-brain barrier are the
astrocytes
the projections of gray matter toward the outter surface of the spinal cord is called
horns
the expected response to the triceps-jerk reflex is
elbow extension
the white matter of the spinal cord contains
bundles of axons that share common orgins, destinations, & functions
the three general function of the nervous system are
sensory, motor, & integrative
the entire spinal cord is divided into how many segments
31
the spinothalamic tract conducts inpulses
up the spinal cord to the thalamus
the following links the cerebral hemispheres with the brain stem
diencephalon
the part of the brain that functions to control skeletal muscles is the
ceberal cortex
majors centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, & digestive activities are located in the
medulla oblongata
the dural sinuses are located in the
dura matter
what contains a delicate network of collagen & elastin fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates?
subarachnoid
the following are functions of the cerebrospinal fluid
provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission
if broca's area is damaged, what might result
loss of the ability to speak
diffusion across the arachnoid villia returns excess CSF to
venous circulation
the two cerebral hemispheres are seperated by the
longitudinal fissure
the surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the
primary sensory cortex
the visual cortecx is located in the
occipital lobe
regions of the brain that are involved in interperting data or cordinating motor responses are
association areas
the region of the brain that is involved in conscious thaought & intellectual function as well as processing somatic sensory & motor information is the
cerebrum
overseeing the postural muscles of the body & making rapid adjustments to maintain balance & equilibrium are functions of the
cerebellum
what is the function of the cerebral association areas
to analyze & interpret sensory information, memory, reasoning, & learning
the horns of the spinal cord contain
nerve cell bodies
most neurons lack centrioles. this observation explains
why these neurons cannot regenerate
after suffering a stroke, you find that you cannot move your right arm. this suggest there is damage in what area of the brain
the frontal lobe
the following are functions of the hypothalamus
temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, hormone productions
head injuries that damage cerebral blood vessels are serious conditions because
these spaces compress & distort the relatively soft tissues of the brain
a disorder affecting the comprension & use of words is termed
dyslexia
what condition refers to the loss of memory from disease or trauma
amnesia
brainwaves found on an EEG in normal adults under resting conditions are
alpha waves
how many pairs of cranial nerves are in the human body
12
the only cranial nerve that is attached to the cerebrum is
olfactory
the cranial nerve that has three branches is the
trigeminal
the cranial nerves that are involved in sensing taste are
Vll, lX, & X
the cranial nerves that are primarily sensory include
I, II, & Vll
damage to which of the following cranial nerves could result in death
vagus
muiscles of the intercostal spaces are innervated by nerves from the
thoracic regions
the joining of adjacent spinal nerves is termed a
plexus
anorther name for the patellar reflex is
the knee jerk reflex
the flexor reflex
moves a limb away from a painful stimulus
the following is abnormal in adults
babinski sign
the highest levels of information processing occur in the
cerebrum
the area of CNS most concerned with balance is
cerebellum
the most senstive area of the body is
the face
information received by the brain concerning internal or external environmental conditions is called
sensation
complex motor activities like riding a bike or eating
require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
the autonomic dividion of the nervous system directs
processes that maintain homeostasis
controls of the glands are through the
ANS
the dividion of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for the activity & stress is
sympathetic division
the division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains homeostasis during stressful conditions is
sympathetic divisions
dual innervation refers to
an organ receiving both sympathetic & parasympathetic nerves
proper control of the respiratory passages depends upon
both the parasympathetic & sympathetic levels of stimulation
alzheimer's disease
is most common cause of senile dementia, is characterized by progressive loss of memory, is characterized by progressive loss of verbal & reading skills, & is associated with the formation of plaques & neurofibrillary tangles in regions of the brain that are involved with memory.