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organism with a vertical column


body structure


study of functions an organism performs

tight junctions

fusion of cell membranes of adjacent cells, prevents molecules from leaking between cells, protects against mechanical injury to cell

anchoring junctions (desmosomes)

link cytoskeleton one cell to another, makes VERY strong connections between cells

communicating junctions

allow molecules to pass between cells

gap junctions (animals)

cytoplasmic channel between cells

plasmodesmata (plants)

gaps between cell walls

epithelial tissue

covers outside the body and lines body organs, cavities, acts as protective barrier

squatious epithelium

cells are flat

cubodial cells

cubic cells


cells form columns

connective tissue

connects/supports other tissue

loose corn tissue

loose mesh of collagen fibers, holds tissues/organs in place

collagen fibers

strong, non elastic, made of protein

elastic fibers


adipose tissue

stores fat for insulation and fuel

fibrous connective tissue

dense parallel collagen fibers, high tensile, non elastic


connect muscle to bone


connect bone to bone at joints


collagen fibers surrounded by strong yet flexible carbohydrate matrix


collagen fibers with solid CaPO4 deposited in it


plasma with H2O, salt, dissolved proteins, red blood cells and white blood cells

nervous tissue

transmits and receives signals throughout the body


voluntary movements


contractile wall of heart


involuntary movements


maintaining near constant body conditions even when other external environment changes significantly

negative feedback system

change that results in response to counteract that change

positive feedback system

any change that results in a response that amplifies the change


how animals maintain their internal temperature within a tolerable range


organisms that gain most heat from external sources


organisms warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism

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