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Arts and Humanities
Praxis 0360/61 - ESL - Linguistic Theory
28 questions, 23% of test
Terms in this set (114)
A system composed of subsystems: phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, discourse, and pragmatics.
the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classification of its phonemes
Number of English phonemes (sounds)
Number of English graphemes (letters)
English phonology is difficult because...
English phonemes (sounds) are represented by many graphemes (letters)
-Ex: Phoneme: /e/ Grapheme: e, ee, ea, Words: behold, beet, meat
When 2 consonants or 2 vowels represent 1 phoneme
-Ex: WHat, PHoto, bEAt, BEEf
-a variant of a phoneme
-often not noticed by native speakers
-Ex: sAm, sAt, both represent /æ/phoneme, but the sam "a" became nasalized and sounds slightly different
-a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound
-Ex: see allophone example of "sam"
-When the vowel sound precedes a nasal sound, the vowel becomes nasalized. In any other condition, the vowel remains an oral sound.
-nasal sounds /æ/ are shown in phonetic transcription with a [˜]symbol.
Pronunciation accompanied by breathing out, puff of air
- EX. a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses; "the dichotomy between eastern and western culture"
aspirated/unaspirated dichotomy of /p/, /t/, /k/
Pork - aspirated, shown as /pˆh/
Spark - unaspirated, shown as /p/
the study of the structure of words and word formation
-units of meaning that make up words
-English can have a minimum of 1 and as many as 4/5
-1 - car
-2 - care/ful (a free and a bound morpheme)
-words with a single morpheme
-called 'free' because it has meaning by itself
attached to words, root words, or another morpheme and cannot exist by themselves b/c they have no meaning alone.
-Ex: care/FUL, PRE/determin/ED
bound = ful, pre, ed
both prefixes and suffixes
morphemes placed before the root word
morphemes placed after the root word
-words pronounced and spelled similarly in 2/multiple languages.
-often caused by many languages using the affixes/roots derived from classical languages such as latin/greek
-Ex: suffix - ism - heroism, herismo
-can increase vocab. of ELL's and support transfer from L1 to L2.
2 Categories of Morphemes..
Derivational & Inflectional
the prefixes and suffixes added to a word to change its meaning and sometimes its part of speech (syntactic classification)
-Ex: subconciously - 4 morphemes - SUB/consci/OUS/LY.
SUB - prefix morpheme, OUS - adj. morpheme, LY - adv. morpheme
From subconscious to subconsciously - syntactic classification from adj. to adv.
aka inflectional endings
-modify a word's tense, number, aspect, and so on (dog if written with the plural marker morpheme s dogs).
-never change the syntactical category of the word
-Ex: great, greatER, added comparative -er, but both still adj.
English inflectional morphemes
8 of them: (ing) (s) ('s) (s,es) (ed) (en) (er) (est)
(ing) inflectional morpheme
Ex: She is workING.
3rd person singular
(s) inflectional morpheme
Ex: She workS at the zoo.
('s) inflectional morpheme
Ex: Mary's favorite animal.
(s,es) inflectional morpheme
Ex: She cleans cagES and 2 shedS daily.
Regular Past Tense
(ed) inflectional morpheme
Ex: She designED a new space.
(en) inflectional morpheme
Ex: Mary has worked at the zoo for years.
(er) inflectional morpheme
Ex: She is bettER.
(est) inflectional morpheme
Ex: Mary is the bEST/coolEST.
the organization or sequence of words in a sentence.
2 main components of English sentence...
Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase
-a phrase that can function as the subject or object of a verb
-include the noun and all its modifiers, as in "the big red bouncy ball"
-can be created through multiple variations of nouns, articles, and adjectives
Noun Phrase variations
-noun: Mark, she, it
-article + noun: the boy, a house
-article + adj. + noun: the brown dog
-adj. + noun: smart folks
Verb Phrase variations
-verb: ran, cries, sobbed
-verb + noun phrase: called + the dog
-verb + prepositional phrase: hide + inside the closet
-preposition + noun phrase: in + the house
Two major categories of verbs...
-transitive & intransitive
-verbs that can take objects, direct or indirect
Identifying direct object...
Use verb (ex:called), called "what or whom?"
Identifying indirect object...
Use verb (ex:gave), gave the bill "to whom?"
-CANNOT take objects.
-usually serve as LINKING verbs of the subject to the predicate adjective PA, predicate nominative PN, or a complement
-linking and intransitive need subject complement to complete meaning of sentence.
-don't confuse linking verbs that convey motion with action verbs!..many motion verbs are intransitive, and some can be either depending on how used.
follows a linking verb and describes the subject
-Hugo Chavez is a colorful leader. NP + IV + PA
a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or identifies the subject
-He is the president of Venezuela. NP + IV + PN
Linking verb examples
appears, become, grow, remain, seen, get, grow, look, sound, smell, feel, taste, continue, runs, all forms of to be, seems
basic sentence patterns in English. Examples:
- s. + IV = Mark + cried.
- s. + IV + adv. = Eugenia + runs + fast.
- s. + TV + DO = Obama + won+ the presidential election.
- s. + TV + DO +obj. complement = Jack + found + the treasure + very quickly.
- s. + IV + PA = The tour + was + wonderful.
- s. + IV + PN = The Celtics + are + the new champs.
a dictionary of a language; the special vocabulary of a person, group, or subject
-most versatile/changeable part of a language
-(Tim McGraw's back when talks about this!)
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
the literal meaning of words/ideas
the implied meaning of words and ideas.
-often used in idiomatic expressions and can cause problems for ELL's
-expressions that traditionally use connotative meaning to communicate information
-uses culturally bound info making them very hard for ELL's
-Amelia Bedelia series is a good example!
the ability of speakers to combine sounds into words, words into sentences and larger units cohesively to achieve oral/written communication
-English narrative = linear discourse
-Arabic, Russian, and many Romantic languages = curvilinear approach
usually present thesis of argument and provide supporting details with minimal deviation from the main idea
-MUST teach this linear progression!
present thesis and the supporting details, but embellish the content in such a way that it can lead away from the main topic, without being penalized
Field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals, role of context in production/interpretation of communication
-many ways to say something...ELL may struggle to have vocab/linguistic sophistication to choose what sounds more polite or to get the point across
a mild, indirect, or vague term substituting for a harsh, blunt, or offensive term
the physical properties of sounds, auditory aspects of speech including frequency, intensity, and duration (length)
the way sounds are produced, vocal tract and articulators - place of articulation
-Ex: bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal, nasal
-produced with lips together
-Ex: Mother, Past, Boy
-produced with lower lip touching upper teeth
-Ex: Vine, Fine
-produced with tongue between the teeth
-Ex: there are 2: THanks, THem
-produced by moving tongue from lower part of upper teeth all the way up until gums begin
Ex: Tip, Do, No, Some, Zoo, Low
-produced from the concave shape of your upper mouth - hard palate
-Ex: SHower, CHart, caJun, seiZure
-produced from behind the hard palate in the soft palate
-Ex: Gate, Car, WHen, Water, siNG
-behind the uvula (pendulum) and before the glottis vocal folds
-vibrations go through your nose when soft palate is lowered.
-There are only 3 nasal sounds /m/ /n/ /ng/, but some vowels become nasal through assimilation...NEw../e/
-Produced when air from the lungs goes through the vocal tract and nose
-Sounds can be pushed through the oral cavity or the nose to make oral or nasal sounds, which can be voiced or voiceless
-created when air from lungs moves through trachea (windpipe) and the openings between the vocal folds (glottis)...the air vibrates the glottis making voiced sounds.
-same as voiced, except air goes through the cavity above the vocal folds instead of through the glottis
English sounds categorized as...
-place of articulation (bilabials, labiodental, alveolars, velars, and palatals)
-manner of articulation (stops, fricatives, affricates, liquids, and glides)
manner of articulation
a category used to describe the consonant sounds of the english language, and include stops, fricatives, affricates, liquids, and glides
-produced when air going through vocal tract stops or dies out
-6 stops in English: /p/-voiceless, /b/-voiced, /t/ /d/ /k/, /g/
-(p,t,k also have aspirated versions...remember, p to the h, K to the hz, etc)
-produced when the air from lungs is partially obstructed creating friction or a hissing sound.
-8 fricatives in English: /f/,/v/,both of the /th/,/s/,/z/,/sh/,/Z/ like pleasure
-produced when the air from the lungs is stopped in the vocal tract and slowly released...combines stop and fricative
-2 affricates in English: ch-church, j-judge
-produced when the airstream finds some degree of obstruction in side the vocal cavity that does not bring to a close the sounds nor creates friction...instead, air passes through the sides of the vocal cavity
-2 liquids in English: /l/ (lateral sound), /r/ (retroflex sound)
-produced when the airstream passes through the vocal tract with little or no obstruction
-occur before or after a vow...gliding to or from
-sound like vowels, BUT - not always voiced, not always the stress of a syllable
-4 glides in English: /j/ (y grapheme) You, /hw/WHen, /h/ Home, /w/ Water
The sound is produced with the tip of the tongue touching the alveolar ridge. /l/
-sounds escapes around the side
The is produced when the tip of the tongue forms an arch that touches the alveolar ridge. /r/
-English has 12 vowel sounds with 5 graphemes and 3 diphthongs
3 main vowel descriptors:
-tongue height: can be high (bEE), mid or low (cAt)
-part of the tongue: front, central, or back
-position of the lips: unrounded or rounded
suprasegmental features of language
-use of features such as pitch beyond the phoneme level to convey meaning (ex: Mandarin)
-Ex: tone, intonation, word stress
-where speakers use different levels of pitch at the syllable level to change the meaning of words
-Tonal languages in the world include: Chinese, Thai, Burmese, Vietnamese, Lao, and African/Native American languages
-causes pronunciation problems for those from tonal languages
-this pattern describe how pitch at the sentence and word level can convey meaning or alter the emphasis of the communication
-English is an intonation language
-pitch contour plays important role in pronunciation, mostly at word, phrase, and sentence level - can change the meaning of identical sentences.
Ex: how ARE you? - question, how are YOU? - the reply
-words with identical spelling but an alternate pronunciation
-word stress changes the meaning and syntactic classification of the these words
-In general, stressing the beginning of the words are Nouns, stressing the end are Verbs
Levels of stress used in English to pronounce words...
3: primary, secondary, and unstressed
words with hight semantic value: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
-we often stress these words in English
words that are required to comply with grammatical conventions: articles, prepositions, auxiliaries, conjunctions, pronouns
Teaching stress patterns to ELL's...
1. usually stress content words over function words
2. usually stress 1st syllable of compound words/nouns: BUTTERflies, FRENCH fries
3. usually stress preposition in 2/3 word phrases: turn it DOWN, shut UP
problems with ch and sh
-usually the problem is not in making the sound, but identifying when the grapheme-phoneme is consistent, and when it is not
-main reason for grapheme/phoneme inconsistency is the use of loan words from various languages
-Ex: ch pronounced as sh: chef, chevron, etc.
communicative competence (Dell Hynes)
-coined by Dell Hynes in 1960's to describe 2nd language acquisition, expanding on Chomsky's concepts of competence used to explain 1st lang.
-the ability of second language learners to apply the rules and use language appropriately.
Components of Communicative Competence
-Canale and Swain (1980).
1. Sociolinguistic: ability to switch from register based on context and purpose of communication
2. Grammatical: application of grammar rules (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics)
3. Discourse: ability to acheive cohesion and coherence in communication
4. Strategic: use of techniques of communication to achieve communicative purpose and to avoid breakdowns in communication
* Must be taught explicitly to ELL's
Communicative Competence (Jim Cummins)
-1981. Based on 2 components:
1. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
2. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
-the type of proficiency that ELL's need to communicate in face-to-face and highly contextualized situations.
-children usually able to master within 2-4 years of exposure to the language
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
-a higher level of linguistic development required to understand instruction in decontextualized situations
-needed to use higher-order thinking skills
-must master to compete in mainstream classrooms, so shouldn't leave ELL's program until reach this
3 types of theorists for 2nd language acquisition:
-the same 3 dominant theories of 1st language acquisition
-L2 learning as a process of habit formation through use of stimulus, response, and reinforcement
-Audiolingual Method = imitation, repetition, and reinforcement to teach. Promote memorization, immediately correct errors, etc.
-Influenced edu during 50's/60's, but ended in 70's
-believe children are born w/capability to learn languages "Innate Mechanism"
-equipped w/grammar template to construct grammar through hypothesis testing, develop these rules w/minimum help from parents
-Creative Construction Theory
-based on behaviorist views
-imitation, repetition, and reinforcement to teach. Promote memorization, immediately correct errors, etc.
Creative Construction Theory
-based on Innatist views
-follow similar strategies as L1 learning and same kinds of errors
Krashen's (Stephen) Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition - 1985
-based on innatist views, one of most comprehensive theories out there.
-Composed of 5 hypothesis
1. Acquisition vs. Learning
2. Comprehensible Input
3. The Monitor Hypothesis
4. Affective Filter Hypothesis
5. Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen's H1 - Acquisition vs. Learning
-Acquisition - through meaningful/natural language interaction w/speakers, no conscious effort to comply w/grammar conventions - meaning driven, low anxiety, language discovery, informal
-Learning - formal, highly restrictive cognitive activities found in teacher center classrooms
-IMPLICATIONS - implement strategies that resemble L1 acquisition, use inductive teaching and promote fun/interactive activities that lead to self-discovery
Krashen's H2 - Comprehensible Input
-must understand the content of the communication in the target language to acquire the language
-input must be a little above current linguistic level for real acquisition to take place
-IMPLICATIONS - implement meaningful activities in contextualized situations to ensure ELL's understand the content. Implement ESL methods to re-create way kids acquire L1
Krashen's H3 - The Monitor Hypothesis
-learners w/formal language instruction develop internal mechanism able to assess language/make corrections, but to use the "language editor," must have explicit knowledge of the rules and time to use them
-IMPLICATIONS - limited implications, but teachers can guide kids to internalize the rules to make the automatic
Krashen's H4 - Affective Filter Hypothesis
-students perform better when they feel motivated and relaxed
-IMPLICATIONS - create low-anxiety environment, shouldn't be forced communicate before they are ready
Krashen's H5 - Natural Order Hypothesis
-ELL's acquire English structures in a predictable sequence w/small variations depending on the influence of L1 - guided by communicative value of structures and frequency of use
-IMPLICATIONS - avoid teaching English following a grammatical sequence. Instead, develop rich linguistic activities where able to use variety of structures
-believe in Language Acquisition Device, but think innatist parent role too low
-caregivers play vital role in adjusting language to facilitate acquisition
-"Conversation scaffolding" - repeating/modeling words child produces, prompt w/questioning
-***Current prevailing theory of L1 acquisition
-Krashen's comprehensible Input theory is key in L2
-Teachers should use nonverbal communication, drawing, modified speech to deliver comprehensible input, and guide to negotiate meaning in real-life situations
Elements that affect language acquisition...
1. Personality - extroversion (+), tolerance for ambiguity (+)
2. Positive Self Esteem -value assign to self, take risks
3. Impulsiveness vs. Reflection - impulsive develop language faster, reflective develop more polished
4. High Anxiety - can guide kids to take responsibility
5. Instrumental Motivation - to learn for specific purpose (travel, test, etc.) but may lose interest after reason is gone
5.1 Integrative Motivation - wat to learn language to understand people/culture and function effectively - prone to learn social aspect of language faster than academic part
6. Previous Schooling - strong academic backgrnd (+)
7. Socioeconomic bckground-usu. low need more help
8. Age - 8-12yrs - 3rd to 6th grade is best
9. Home environment - harder if live in ethnic enclave
10. Expected time in country - try harder if remaining
Critical Period Hypothesis
-children might have advantage over adults with pronunciation and are more willing to take risks
-Ideal time is after kid develops strong foundation in L1 - 8-12 yrs. old (3rd to 6th grade).
-adult usually have language ego - but have advantage in more abstract components of a language
Interdependence of L1/L2
-academic skills, knowledge, literacy development, etc. transfer to L2
-this interdependence called "The common underlying proficiency" by Jim Cummins - 1991
-affects L2 acquisition
-transitional construction students develop in the process of mastering a second language - caused by language interference or complexity of the structure of the language
-if non-standard structures persist, they become FOSSILIZED
-unique to individual L2 learners
-affects L2 acquisition
-Cummins - should arrive at academic/literacy level in L1 to transfer to L2
-explains why ELL's taught only in L2 may have academic difficulties
-affects L2 acquisition
-errors caused from L1
-Ex: b/c Spanish doesn't have "Z" sound, spanish speakers substitute with "S" sound - Zoo becomes Sue
Cross-Linguistic Language Transfer
-affects L2 acquisition
-when structures from L1 help in acquisition of L2
-Ex: Spanish has many of the same formats - don't need to relearn to read, just learn vocab, sentactic/semantic features
-affects L2 acquisition
-alternating use of 2 languages in communication - b/c don't know word, expression isn't available in other language, or convey idea they are bilingual
1. intRAsentential - (within sentence) I love cerveza.
2. intERsentential - (across sentences) Tengo hambre. Let's go eat.
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