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Terms in this set (32)

- by victor vroom; suggests that people are motivated by two things (1) how much they want something and (2) how likely they think they are to get it. People will make the choice that promises them the greatest reward if they think they can get it.

1. Effort: I exert an effort.. in order to achieve

2. Expectancy: Will I be able to perform at the desired level on a task? .. in order to achieve

- belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance; effort-to performance expectancy

-e.g believe that putting in more hours working at target selling clothes will result in higher sales, then you have high effort-to-performance expectancy


3. Performance: a particular level of task performance .. so that I can realize

4. Instrumentality: what outcome will i receive if i perform at this level... so that i can realize

- expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired; performance to reward expectancy

-e.g if you believe that making higher sales will cause target to give you a bonus, then you have high performance-to-reward expectancy

5. Outcomes: certain outcomes (e.g pay, recognition)

6. Valence: how much do i want the outcome?

- value, the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward

-e.g if you assign a lot of importance or a high value to Target's prospective bonus or pay raise, then your valence is said to be high.

** for your motivation to be high, you must be high on all 3 elements; expectancy, instrumentality, and valence

** principal problem with the expectancy theory is that it is complex
- by hackman and oldham
- outgrowth of job enrichment
- model consists of (a) five core job characteristics that affect (b) three critical psychological states of an employee that in turn affect (c) work outcomes- the employee's motivation, performance, and satisfaction
- positively associated with employee performance, job satisfaction, org commitment, and physical and psycogloial well-being, and lower absenteeism and inentions to quit.





- Five core job characteristics:
1. Skill Variety; extent to which a job requires a person to use a wide range of different skills & abilities. (e.g the skill variety required by a rocket scientist is higher than that for short-order cook)

2. Task identity; extent to which a job requires a worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete the job from beginning to end (e.g task identity for a craftsperson who goes through all the steps to build a handmade acoustic gutair is higher than one who assembles windshields on cars)

3. Task significance; extent to which a job affects the lies of other people (e.g a technician who is responisble for keeping a hospital's electronic equipment in working order has higher significance than someone who wipes down cars at a car wash)

4. Autonomy; extent to which a job allows an employee to make choices about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them (e.g college textbook sales people have lots of leeway in planning which campuses and professors to call on as opposed to a toll-taker on a bridge, whose actions are determined by the flow of vehicles

5. Feed back; extent to which workers receive clear, direct information about how well they are performing the job


- Three psychological states:
1. Expereinced meaningfulness of work

2. Experienced responsibility for work outcomes

3. Knowledge of actual results of the work


- Work outcomes
1. High work motivation

2. High work performance

3. HIgh work satisfaction

4. Low absenteeism and turnover

Job design works when people are motivated in which you need these factors;
Contingency factors: degree to which inidviduals want personal and psychological development:
1. knowledge and skill
2. desire for personal growth
3. context satisfactions
-reinforcement pioneered by thorndike and skinner; concerned with how the consequences of a certain behavior affect that behavior in the future

- Skinner: father of operant conditioning; the process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences and rests on thorndikes law of effect, states that behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated and behavior that results in unpleasant outcomes is not likely to be repeated

- reinforcement[ anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited] theory: attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends to not be repeated; the use of reinforcement theory to change human behavior is called behavior modification


1. positive reinforcement (big bang theory gives penny chocolate to make her go use her phone outside/ be quiet while watching tv); use of positive consequences to strengthen a particular behavior; rewards employee improvements- increases chances behavior will be repeated

2. Negative reinforcement (everybody loves raymond, no longer nag to send fruit every month); process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative ; avoids employee reprimands and no longer nags- increases chances behavior will be repeated

3. Extinction; weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced; withholds employee rewards- reduces chances behavior will be repeated


4. Punishment; process of weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive; reprimands and disciplines employee- reduces chances behavior will be repeated

* detailed example in power point *