starting at the top; people are motivated by five levels of needs
5- Self Actualization: need for self- fulfillment; increasing competence, using abilities to the fullest (i.e sabbatical leave to further personal growth)
4- Esteem: need for self-respect, status, reputation, recognition, self-confidence (i.e bonuses, promotions, awards)
3- Love: need for love, friendship, affection (i.e office parties, management retreats)
2- Safety: need for physical safety, emotional security, avoidance of violence (i.e health insurance, job security, work safety rules- pension plans satisfy)
1- Physiological: the basic human physical need. (i.e food, clothing, shelter, comfort, self-preservation-- covered by wages)
- Maslow suggested needs are never fully satisfied; actions aimed at fulfilling the "deprived" needs
-importance of contribution is that he showed that workers have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck- managers should first try to meet employees' level 1 and level 2 needs
- acquired needs theory: states that three needs- achievement, affiliation, and power are major motives determining people's behavior in the workplace.
-McClelland believes we are not born with our needs but rather we learn them from culture
1. Achievement: " I need to excel at tasks" desire to excel, do something better or more efficiently, solve problems, achieve excellence in challenging tasks, tend to advance in technical fields requiring creativity and individual skills
2. Affiliation: " I need close relationships" desire for friendly and warm relations w/ others, tend to prefer work such as sales
3. Power: " I need to control others" desire to be responsible for other people, to influence their behavior or to control them, be recognized for this responsibility,
2 forms of power:
1. personal: negative, the desire to dominate others, and involves manipulating people for one's own gratification
2. institutional: positive, solve problems that further organizational goals
- focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared with others; based on the idea that employees are motivated to see fairness in the rewards they expect for task performance
- developed by stacy adams
1. My inputs: "what does it seem like I am putting into the job?" time, effort, training, seniority, creativity, intelligence, etc,
---- My inputs are compared w/ other employee inputs -----
Their inputs: " what does it seem like they are putting into the job?" time, effort, training, etc.
2. my outputs: " what does it seem like i am getting out of the job?" pay, benefits, praise, etc.
------ my outputs (rewards) are compared with other employees' outputs-----
their outputs: " what does it seem like they are getting out of the job?" pay, benefits, praise, etc.
3. Equity is perceived: "Im satisfied and so I wont change my behavior"
---- Comparison: "How does it seem the ratio of my inputs and outputs compares with the ratio of theirs? Are they fair (equity) or unfair (equity)?"---- make a judgement about fairness
Inequity is perceived: " Im dissatisfied and so I will change my behavior"
- Either they perceive there is equity: satisfied with the ratio and so they don't change their behavior
- Or perceive there is inequity: they feel resentful and act to change the inequity
3rd EditionC. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
6th EditionSpencer A. Rathus
2nd EditionDavid G Myers
13th EditionMichael R Solomon