After submitting her completed research dissertation to her comittee, Becky was accused of plagiarism by the chair of the department. What did the chair believe Becky did?
Becky copied major parts of her dissertation from someone else's work
To be classified as a society, what are the two key qualitites a group of people must share?
A common culture and a territory
Which sociological perspective analyzes how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and other?
What term describes the use of sociology to solve social problems in business, the workplace, and other aspects of society?
How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions?
Marx believed economics was the central force driving social change, and Weber claimed it was religion
What event led to an uprooting of what had been traditional social arrangements?
The industrial revolution
What is a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work?
Which sociological perspective views society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources?
Which theoretical perspective stresses that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously?
What term did Robert Merton use to describe human actions that hurt a system (society) that are usually unintended?
Frank is examining the broad stream of events that have occurred over the past 50 years and the specific experiences of his own life. By doing so, what sociological process has Frank undertaken?
The sociological imagination
Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which individual would be the greatest suicide risk?
Herbert, a single Protestant man living in the city
Anthony is conducting experimental research on the effects of an educational therapy programand the conflict-resolution skills of inmates. He has established two groups. Group A will receive a special conflict-resolution therapy program. Group B will go about their routine without receiving the therapy or a therapy substitute. What is Group B in experimental research such as this?
The control group
Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life as the protestant ethic, true or false?
Individuals becoming homeless because of welfare reform legislation that cuts all payments to non-working Americans after two years would be classified as a latent dysfunction of the legislation, true or false?
Marxism and communism are indentical political ideologies with both leading to a classless society, true or false?
Pure, basic, and applied sociology are all terms that refer to the application of the scientific method to the social world, true or false?
Symbolic interactionism and structural functionalism are both theoretical perspectives that rely on macro-level analysis, true or false?
W.E.B. Du Bois and Jane Addams would be most appropiately classified as applied sociologists, true or false?
Stresses the social contexts in which people live;examines how contexts influence people's lives
"The study of society"; the purpose is not only to discover social principles, but also to apply them to social reform
The engine of human history, the idea that society is made up of two classes and that they are natural enemies (Burgeoise v. Proletariat)
Where the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
Harnessing the sociological perspective for the benefit of the public, a middle ground between research and reform
The corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society
Found the trends underlying suicide, less social integration=the higher the rate, proestant, male, and unmarried have higher rates
W.E.B. Du Bois
African American, fought againt racisms, published a book on black white relations, founded National Association fro the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Idea that symbols (things to which we attach meaning) are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another
Functional Analysis / Structural Functionalism
The society is a whole unit, made up of iterrelated parts that work together, like organs working together in a body
Concept that Karl Marx believed in would be a result of a revolution due to class conflict
Manifest is an action that is intended to help the system and latent is a function that unintendedly helps the system adjust
What term do sociologists use to describe the language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, and material objects shared by members of society that are also passed from one generation to the next?
When sociologists use the phrase, "the culture within us," what do they mean?
Shared and learned ways of believing and doing become taken-for-granted assumptions
Mark is a foreign exchange student living with a Chinese family. The first night he was with them his hosts served a delicious entree of meat and vegetables. Although tasty, Mark could not identify the meat. When his host told him it was roast dog Mark became upset and decided to become a vegetarian for the course of his stay. In view of this, which sociological concept did Mark just experience?
What is the tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging the behavior, values, and beliefs of others?
How do members of a society acquire the ability to use and understand gestures?
Most gestures are learned through interaction with others
What term refers to how our language determines our consciousness and perceptions of objects and events?
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
What term describes hugs, smiles, and "high fives" that are freely given between two individuals as a sign of expressing approval for following a norm?
What term describes a society which is made up of many different religions, races, and ethnic groups?
A pluralistic society
What is the core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution?
What term do sociologists use to describe the norms and values that people actually follow as opposed to those the would follow if they lives in "a perfect world"?
When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of what?
Most gestures are universal and serve as an international method of communication, true or false?
Because of the freedom of speech and ability to express individual views, culture wards are almost nonexistent in the United States, true or false?
A society's material culture usually experiences a change first, and the nonmaterial culture catches up to the change later, true or false?
Wayne always wears a lapel pin on his suit signifying that he was the recipient of the Medal of Honor when he was in the service. Usually, only veterans recognize what the pin actually means. In view of this, which of the following terms best describes Wayne's lapel pin?
It is a symbol to which people attach meaning
The motorcycle gang "Hells Angels" is a good example of a subculture because their values and norms blend in with mainstream society, true or false?
A group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
The process by which cultures become similar to one another especially refers to the process by which U.S. culture is being imported and diffused into other nations
Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms (cultural empathy)
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
The use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of the other societies' values, norms, and behaviors
A system of symbols that can be combines in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
The material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry
An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such a a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
Nonmaterial Culture / Symbolic Culture
A group's ways of thinking (and culture) and doing (it common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world withint a world
A norm thought essential for society's welfare, one so strong that it brings revulsion if violated
In its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
Values that contradict one another to follow the one means to come into conflict with the otehr
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Early interaction with other humans in necessary to establish intelligence and the ability to experience close bonds with others, true or false?
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?
Our self concept develops from interaction with others
In Piaget's model, in which stage do children become "young philosophers" who are capable of abstract thinking?
The formal operational stage
What are the stages we pass through from birth to death that include childhood, adolescence, transitional childhood, the middle years, and the older years?
The life course
George Herbert Mead concluded that both the self and the human mind are social products, true or false?
Meagan always paints her fingernails purple and always wears a pin representing the Minnesota Vikings. What term describes what Meagan's purple fingernails and pin represent?
It is Meagan's personal identity kit
What term applies to the gap between childhood and adulthood that was first addressed during the Industrial Revolution?
What conclusion can be drawn from the case study of Oskar and Jack, the identical twins who were born in 1932 and raised in very different cultures?
One's orientation to life is largely the result of environment
To what sociological perspective is Mead's theory of human development most aligned?
Why do sociologists generally object to the Freudian view of personality?
Sociologists reject the view that inborn or subconscious motivations are primary reasons for our behavior
Bob's football coach is a very important influence in his life. Many of Bob's actions are attempts to win the approval of his coach. Based on Mead's theory on development, which concept applies most to the relationship between Bob and his coach?
Bob's coach is one of his significant others
April spends more than 40hrs/week in day care because both her parents work full-time. Hope spends about 15 hrs/week in day care because her mother only works part-time. Based upon the studies, what can one expect of the relationship April will have with her mother by the time she starts school?
April will have a weaker bond with her mother than Hope
Fred has applied for the position of head football coach at a local middle school, a role he has not fulfilled in the past. Although the Board of Education hasn't announced its decision on who will receive the position, Fred is already developing plays, looking at methods to motivate his players, and ways to get the student body behind the team. Based on this, what condition is Fred experiences?
Studies that involve identical twins demonstrate that both heredity and environment influence human development, true or false?
Leo, Matthews, Ryan, Liz, Isabelle, and Francis grew up together, attended the same schools, and share many of the same interests. Sociologically, which concept best describe their relationship?
They comprise a peer group
According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?
Through play and imitation
As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive dolls and gifts that are most passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?
Without language there can be no culture and culture is the key to what people become, true or false?
Agents of Socialization
People or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
A term coined by Harold Garfinkel to describe an attempt to remake the shelf by stripping away an individual's self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
The behaviors and attitudes that a group considers proper for males and females; masculinity and femininity
The ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female
The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people "in general"; the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self
A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our sense of self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
Forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, movies, and television that are directed to mass audiences
The uniquely human capacity of being able to see ourselves "from the outside"; the picture we gain of how others see us
Giving privileges and obligations to one group of people while denying them to another
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group (the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropiate for them
Take The Role Of Other
Putting oneself in someone's shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act
A place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by teh officials who run the palce
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
The sensorimotor stage (birth-age 2; sucking, touching), preoperational stage (age 2-7; ability to use symbols), concrete operational stage (age 7-12; concrete reasoning abilities), formal operational stage (age 12+; capable of abstract thinking)
After studying the use of personal space in several cultures, what conclusion did Edward Hall reach regarding the amount of space people prefer?
The amount of personal space people prefer varies from one culture to another
Which three variables does the author recognize as being especially significant in determining one's social class?
Occupational prestige, income, and education
Macrosociology focuses on social interaction, what people do when they come together face-to-face i and in small groups, true or false?
Connie is an 82-year-old retired full professor taking undergraduate courses in deviance, criminology, and juvenile delinquency. Which sociological term most applies to Connie being 82 and an undergraduate student?
A(n) ______ designates social position while a(n) _______ designates socially expected behavior
Which of the following statements summarizes the Thomas theorem?
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
Alice if getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She had picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the salon. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicated to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. What term would Goffman use to describe Alice's behavior?
What do the concepts of judge, professor, mother, student, soldier, and mechanic haev in common?
They are all achieved statuses
What is the basis for referring to the society in which members are interdependent upon one another as being in a state of "organic solidarity"?
Members of the society are like organs of the body, each performing different tasks
What is the term used to describe a group's language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and gestures?
As societies become more industrialized, how do their social institutions change?
Social institutions become the standard ways that a society meets its basic needs
As Dr. Crabtree lectures her American Lit class just before lunch, her stomach begins to rumble at a volume that can be heard by most of the students. She ignores it and continues and her students ignore it too. This is an example of which face-saving behavior?
Studied non observance
What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?
The changing statuses and roles of players and coaches on a college football team illustrate the theory that social behavior and attitude are a matter of biology and genetic factors and a "survival of the fittest" complese, true or false?
In a horticultural society some members engage in art, metal working, carpentry, and occupations other than those related to food production. What term describes this specialization fo work?
Division of labor
Positions that are earned or accomplished, or that involve at least some effort or activity on the individual's part
Positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
A type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
A type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is important; alsoc called a social group
The third social revolution occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
Analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of social structure, such as social class an the relationships of groups to one another; an approach usually used by functionalists and conflict theorists
Durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
Analysis of social life that focuses on social interaction; an approach usually used by symbolic interactionists
Solidarity based on the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people needing others to fulfill their jobs
Postindustrial (or information) Society
A new type of society based on information, services, and the latest technology rather than on raw material and manufacturing
Conflicts that someone feels between roles because the expectation attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role
According to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
Social Construction of Reality
The use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real
The degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds
The framework that surrounds us, consisting of the relationship of people and groups to one another, which give direction to and set limits on behavior
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group, the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropriate for them
A contradiction or mismatch between statuses; a condition in which a person ranks high on some dimensions of social class and loow on others
William I. and Doroty S. Thomas' classic formulation of the definition of the situation: "If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"
Groupthink results in multiple ways to accomplish objectives and greater, true or false?input from group members
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy gathered opinions on how to address the problem from selected national leaders. After this group reached a consensus, the President made the final decision for a Naval quarantine of Cuba. This scenario is an example of which type of leadership
Which best describes "the iron law of oligarchy?"
The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite
What was the conclusion reached by Stanley Milgram in his "teacher-learner" experiment?
Some people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
What occurs when members of a larger group believe that giving help is no more their responsibility than anyone else's?
Diffusion of responsibility
What term describes people who share similar characteristics but little else, such as all women attending college, all left-handed people, or all men over seven feet tall?
According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, what is an aspect of "hidden" corporate culture?
Self-fulfilling stereotypes lead managers to promote workers who are like themselves
When Judith Kleinfeld replicated Milgram's experiment on small world phenomenon, what did she conclude?
People who don't know one another are dramatically separated by social barriers
Which set of characteristics is most applicable to secondary groups?
Formal, intimate, face-to-face interaction
Of the following characteristics, which one least applies to bureaucracies?
Personal attention and individualism
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, what type of group do these two rival gangs represent?
What conclusion can be drawn from Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity?
Group pressure will cause most people to say things they don't believe
What classification best describes groups that organize on the basis of some mutual interest, such as the Girl Scouts, Knights of Columbus, and labor unions?
What term describes people who share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together?
What conclusion did Georg Simmel reach with respect to the size of a group?
As groups grow smaller, they become less stable
What does "the McDonaldization" of society refer to?
The predictability and standardization of everyday life
People who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging ogether
A group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest
The Iron Law of Oligarchy
Refers to how organizations come to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
The Rationalization of Society
That bureaucracies with their rules and emphasis on results, would increasingly dominate our lives
Even after and organization achieves its goal and no longer has a reason to continues, it still continues