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245 terms

Sociology Unit Test 1

Henslin chp1-5
STUDY
PLAY
After submitting her completed research dissertation to her comittee, Becky was accused of plagiarism by the chair of the department. What did the chair believe Becky did?
Becky copied major parts of her dissertation from someone else's work
To be classified as a society, what are the two key qualitites a group of people must share?
A common culture and a territory
Which sociological perspective analyzes how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and other?
Symbolic interactionism
What term describes the use of sociology to solve social problems in business, the workplace, and other aspects of society?
Applied sociology
How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions?
Marx believed economics was the central force driving social change, and Weber claimed it was religion
What event led to an uprooting of what had been traditional social arrangements?
The industrial revolution
What is a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work?
A theory
Which sociological perspective views society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources?
Conflict theory
Which theoretical perspective stresses that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously?
Functional analysis
What term did Robert Merton use to describe human actions that hurt a system (society) that are usually unintended?
Latent dysfunctions
Frank is examining the broad stream of events that have occurred over the past 50 years and the specific experiences of his own life. By doing so, what sociological process has Frank undertaken?
The sociological imagination
Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which individual would be the greatest suicide risk?
Herbert, a single Protestant man living in the city
Anthony is conducting experimental research on the effects of an educational therapy programand the conflict-resolution skills of inmates. He has established two groups. Group A will receive a special conflict-resolution therapy program. Group B will go about their routine without receiving the therapy or a therapy substitute. What is Group B in experimental research such as this?
The control group
Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life as the protestant ethic, true or false?
True
Individuals becoming homeless because of welfare reform legislation that cuts all payments to non-working Americans after two years would be classified as a latent dysfunction of the legislation, true or false?
True
Marxism and communism are indentical political ideologies with both leading to a classless society, true or false?
False
Pure, basic, and applied sociology are all terms that refer to the application of the scientific method to the social world, true or false?
False
Common sense is the most important aspect of designing sociological research, true or false?
False
Symbolic interactionism and structural functionalism are both theoretical perspectives that rely on macro-level analysis, true or false?
False
W.E.B. Du Bois and Jane Addams would be most appropiately classified as applied sociologists, true or false?
True
Sociological Perspective
Stresses the social contexts in which people live;examines how contexts influence people's lives
Society
A groups of people who share a culture and a territory
Sociology
"The study of society"; the purpose is not only to discover social principles, but also to apply them to social reform
Positivism
Applying the scientific method to the social world, suggested by Auguste Comte
Class Conflict
The engine of human history, the idea that society is made up of two classes and that they are natural enemies (Burgeoise v. Proletariat)
Social Integration
The degree to which people are tied to their social group
Replication
Repeating a study in order to compare a new study with the original findings
Values
Beliefs about what is good or desirable in life and the way the world ought to be
Latent Dysfunctions
Usually unintended human actions that hurt a system
Applied Sociology
Using sociology to solve problems
Theory
A general statement of how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
Micro-Level Analysis
Examining what people do when they are in one another's presence
Macro-Level Analysis
Examining large scale patterns of society
Participant Observation
Where the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
Public Sociology
Harnessing the sociological perspective for the benefit of the public, a middle ground between research and reform
Social Location
The corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society
Emile Durkheim
Found the trends underlying suicide, less social integration=the higher the rate, proestant, male, and unmarried have higher rates
Social Integration
The degree to which people are tied to their social groups
W.E.B. Du Bois
African American, fought againt racisms, published a book on black white relations, founded National Association fro the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Jane Addams
Co founded NAACP and fought for social reform
Symbolic Interactionism
Idea that symbols (things to which we attach meaning) are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another
Functional Analysis / Structural Functionalism
The society is a whole unit, made up of iterrelated parts that work together, like organs working together in a body
Classless Society
Concept that Karl Marx believed in would be a result of a revolution due to class conflict
Manifest/Latent Functions
Manifest is an action that is intended to help the system and latent is a function that unintendedly helps the system adjust
Conflict Theory
A conclusion by Marx that the key to human history in class conflict
Operational Definition
Precise ways to measure the variables
What term do sociologists use to describe the language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, and material objects shared by members of society that are also passed from one generation to the next?
Culture
Which set of concepts best illustrates nomaterial culture?
Beliefs, values, norms
When sociologists use the phrase, "the culture within us," what do they mean?
Shared and learned ways of believing and doing become taken-for-granted assumptions
Mark is a foreign exchange student living with a Chinese family. The first night he was with them his hosts served a delicious entree of meat and vegetables. Although tasty, Mark could not identify the meat. When his host told him it was roast dog Mark became upset and decided to become a vegetarian for the course of his stay. In view of this, which sociological concept did Mark just experience?
Culture shock
What is the tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging the behavior, values, and beliefs of others?
Ethnocentrism
How do members of a society acquire the ability to use and understand gestures?
Most gestures are learned through interaction with others
What term refers to how our language determines our consciousness and perceptions of objects and events?
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
What are the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values?
Norms
What term describes hugs, smiles, and "high fives" that are freely given between two individuals as a sign of expressing approval for following a norm?
Positive Sanctions
What term describes a society which is made up of many different religions, races, and ethnic groups?
A pluralistic society
What is the core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution?
Freedom
What term do sociologists use to describe the norms and values that people actually follow as opposed to those the would follow if they lives in "a perfect world"?
Real culture
When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of what?
Cultural diffusion
Most gestures are universal and serve as an international method of communication, true or false?
False
United States society contains thousands of subcultures, true or false?
True
Because of the freedom of speech and ability to express individual views, culture wards are almost nonexistent in the United States, true or false?
False
A society's material culture usually experiences a change first, and the nonmaterial culture catches up to the change later, true or false?
True
Wayne always wears a lapel pin on his suit signifying that he was the recipient of the Medal of Honor when he was in the service. Usually, only veterans recognize what the pin actually means. In view of this, which of the following terms best describes Wayne's lapel pin?
It is a symbol to which people attach meaning
The motorcycle gang "Hells Angels" is a good example of a subculture because their values and norms blend in with mainstream society, true or false?
False
Within a culture values never change, true or false?
False
Counterculture
A group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
Cultural Lag
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
Cultural Leveling
The process by which cultures become similar to one another especially refers to the process by which U.S. culture is being imported and diffused into other nations
Cultural Relativism
Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms (cultural empathy)
Culture
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
Culture Shock
The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
Ethnocentrism
The use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of the other societies' values, norms, and behaviors
Folkways
Norms that are not strictly enforces
Gestures
The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
Ideal Culture
The ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for them
Language
A system of symbols that can be combines in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
Material Culture
The material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry
Mores
Norms that are strictly enforce because they are thought essential to core values
Negative Sanction
An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such a a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
New Technology
An emerging technology that has a significant impact on social life
Nonmaterial Culture / Symbolic Culture
A group's ways of thinking (and culture) and doing (it common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
Norms
The expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop to reflect and enforce values
Pluralistic Society
A society made up of many different groups
Positive Sanction
A reward or positive reaction for following norms
Real Culture
The norms and values that people actually follow
Sanctions
Expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
Subculture
The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world withint a world
Symbol
Something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
Symbolic Culture
Another term for nonmaterial culture
Taboo
A norm thought essential for society's welfare, one so strong that it brings revulsion if violated
Technology
In its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
Value Contradiction
Values that contradict one another to follow the one means to come into conflict with the otehr
Values
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Early interaction with other humans in necessary to establish intelligence and the ability to experience close bonds with others, true or false?
True
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?
Our self concept develops from interaction with others
In Piaget's model, in which stage do children become "young philosophers" who are capable of abstract thinking?
The formal operational stage
What are the stages we pass through from birth to death that include childhood, adolescence, transitional childhood, the middle years, and the older years?
The life course
George Herbert Mead concluded that both the self and the human mind are social products, true or false?
True
Meagan always paints her fingernails purple and always wears a pin representing the Minnesota Vikings. What term describes what Meagan's purple fingernails and pin represent?
It is Meagan's personal identity kit
What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called?
Resocialization
What term applies to the gap between childhood and adulthood that was first addressed during the Industrial Revolution?
Adolescence
What conclusion can be drawn from the case study of Oskar and Jack, the identical twins who were born in 1932 and raised in very different cultures?
One's orientation to life is largely the result of environment
To what sociological perspective is Mead's theory of human development most aligned?
Symbolic interactionist
Why do sociologists generally object to the Freudian view of personality?
Sociologists reject the view that inborn or subconscious motivations are primary reasons for our behavior
Bob's football coach is a very important influence in his life. Many of Bob's actions are attempts to win the approval of his coach. Based on Mead's theory on development, which concept applies most to the relationship between Bob and his coach?
Bob's coach is one of his significant others
April spends more than 40hrs/week in day care because both her parents work full-time. Hope spends about 15 hrs/week in day care because her mother only works part-time. Based upon the studies, what can one expect of the relationship April will have with her mother by the time she starts school?
April will have a weaker bond with her mother than Hope
Fred has applied for the position of head football coach at a local middle school, a role he has not fulfilled in the past. Although the Board of Education hasn't announced its decision on who will receive the position, Fred is already developing plays, looking at methods to motivate his players, and ways to get the student body behind the team. Based on this, what condition is Fred experiences?
Anticipatory socialization
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
A mental hospital
Studies that involve identical twins demonstrate that both heredity and environment influence human development, true or false?
True
Leo, Matthews, Ryan, Liz, Isabelle, and Francis grew up together, attended the same schools, and share many of the same interests. Sociologically, which concept best describe their relationship?
They comprise a peer group
According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?
Through play and imitation
As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive dolls and gifts that are most passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?
Gender socialization
Without language there can be no culture and culture is the key to what people become, true or false?
True
Agents of Socialization
People or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
Anticipatory Socialization
Because one anticipates a future role, one learns parts of it now
Degradation Ceremony
A term coined by Harold Garfinkel to describe an attempt to remake the shelf by stripping away an individual's self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
Feral Children
Children raised apart from human society
Gender
The attitudes and behaviors that are expected of us because we are a male or a female
Gender Role
The behaviors and attitudes that a group considers proper for males and females; masculinity and femininity
Gender Socialization
The ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female
Generalized Other
The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people "in general"; the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self
Life Course
The stage in our life as we go from birth to death
Looking-Glass Self
A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our sense of self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
Mass Media
Forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, movies, and television that are directed to mass audiences
Peer Group
A group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
Resocialization
The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Self
The uniquely human capacity of being able to see ourselves "from the outside"; the picture we gain of how others see us
Significant Other
An individual who significantly influences someone's life
Social Inequality
Giving privileges and obligations to one group of people while denying them to another
Socialization
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group (the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropiate for them
Take The Role Of Other
Putting oneself in someone's shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act
Total Institution
A place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by teh officials who run the palce
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
The sensorimotor stage (birth-age 2; sucking, touching), preoperational stage (age 2-7; ability to use symbols), concrete operational stage (age 7-12; concrete reasoning abilities), formal operational stage (age 12+; capable of abstract thinking)
Id
Inborn drives that cause us to seek self-gratification
Ego
The balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress it
Superego
The conscience
Transitional Adulthood
A period of extended youth to the life course, also known as adultolescence
After studying the use of personal space in several cultures, what conclusion did Edward Hall reach regarding the amount of space people prefer?
The amount of personal space people prefer varies from one culture to another
Which three variables does the author recognize as being especially significant in determining one's social class?
Occupational prestige, income, and education
Macrosociology focuses on social interaction, what people do when they come together face-to-face i and in small groups, true or false?
False
Connie is an 82-year-old retired full professor taking undergraduate courses in deviance, criminology, and juvenile delinquency. Which sociological term most applies to Connie being 82 and an undergraduate student?
Status inconsistency
A(n) ______ designates social position while a(n) _______ designates socially expected behavior
Status; role
Which of the following statements summarizes the Thomas theorem?
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
Culture is the broadest framework that determines the kind of people we become, true or false?
True
Social statuses have built-in norms that guide our behavior, true or false?
True
What were the basic components of the fourth social revolution?
Information and services
Alice if getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She had picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the salon. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicated to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. What term would Goffman use to describe Alice's behavior?
Impression management
What do the concepts of judge, professor, mother, student, soldier, and mechanic haev in common?
They are all achieved statuses
What is the basis for referring to the society in which members are interdependent upon one another as being in a state of "organic solidarity"?
Members of the society are like organs of the body, each performing different tasks
What is the term used to describe a group's language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and gestures?
Culture
As societies become more industrialized, how do their social institutions change?
Social institutions become the standard ways that a society meets its basic needs
What term describes people who share a culture and territory?
Society
As Dr. Crabtree lectures her American Lit class just before lunch, her stomach begins to rumble at a volume that can be heard by most of the students. She ignores it and continues and her students ignore it too. This is an example of which face-saving behavior?
Studied non observance
What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?
Ascribed status
The changing statuses and roles of players and coaches on a college football team illustrate the theory that social behavior and attitude are a matter of biology and genetic factors and a "survival of the fittest" complese, true or false?
False
In a horticultural society some members engage in art, metal working, carpentry, and occupations other than those related to food production. What term describes this specialization fo work?
Division of labor
Of the following, which status least qualifies as a master status?
Licensed driver
Achieved Statuses
Positions that are earned or accomplished, or that involve at least some effort or activity on the individual's part
Ascribed Statuses
Positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
Body Language
The ways people use their bodies to give messages to others
Division of Labor
The splitting of a group's or a society's tasks into specialties
Ethnomethodology
The study of how people use background assumptions to make sense of life
Face-Saving Behavior
Techniques people use to salvage a performance that is going sour
Gemeinschaft
A type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
Gesellschaft
A type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
Group
People who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is important; alsoc called a social group
Impression Management
People's efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them
Industrial Revolution
The third social revolution occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
Industrial society
An efficient society with greater surplus and inequality
Macrosociology
Analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of social structure, such as social class an the relationships of groups to one another; an approach usually used by functionalists and conflict theorists
Master Status
A status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies
Mechanical Solidarity
Durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
Microsociology
Analysis of social life that focuses on social interaction; an approach usually used by symbolic interactionists
Organic Solidarity
Solidarity based on the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people needing others to fulfill their jobs
Postindustrial (or information) Society
A new type of society based on information, services, and the latest technology rather than on raw material and manufacturing
Role
The behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
Role Conflict
Conflicts that someone feels between roles because the expectation attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role
Role Performance
The particular emphasis or interpretation that we give to a role
Role Strain
Conflicts that someone feels within a role
Social Class
According to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
Social Construction of Reality
The use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real
Social Institution
The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs
Social Integration
The degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds
Social Interaction
What people do when they are in one another's presence
Social Structure
The framework that surrounds us, consisting of the relationship of people and groups to one another, which give direction to and set limits on behavior
Socialization
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group, the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropriate for them
Society
People who share a culture and a territory
Status
Social ranking; the position that someone occupies in society or a social group
Status Inconsistency
A contradiction or mismatch between statuses; a condition in which a person ranks high on some dimensions of social class and loow on others
Status Set
All the statuses or positions that an individual occupies
Status Symbol
Items used to identify a status
Teamwork
The collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly
Thomas Theorem
William I. and Doroty S. Thomas' classic formulation of the definition of the situation: "If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"
Horticultural Societies
Based on the cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools
Agricultural Societies
Allowed people to engage in more than farming, such as philosophy art, etc.
Groupthink results in multiple ways to accomplish objectives and greater, true or false?input from group members
False
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy gathered opinions on how to address the problem from selected national leaders. After this group reached a consensus, the President made the final decision for a Naval quarantine of Cuba. This scenario is an example of which type of leadership
Democratic
Which best describes "the iron law of oligarchy?"
The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite
What was the conclusion reached by Stanley Milgram in his "teacher-learner" experiment?
Some people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
What term refers to the social ties that link people together?
Social network
In bureaucracies, what term refers to illogical rules and procedures?
Red tape
What occurs when members of a larger group believe that giving help is no more their responsibility than anyone else's?
Diffusion of responsibility
What term describes people who share similar characteristics but little else, such as all women attending college, all left-handed people, or all men over seven feet tall?
A category
According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, what is an aspect of "hidden" corporate culture?
Self-fulfilling stereotypes lead managers to promote workers who are like themselves
When Judith Kleinfeld replicated Milgram's experiment on small world phenomenon, what did she conclude?
People who don't know one another are dramatically separated by social barriers
What is the largest and most complex type of group?
Society
Which set of characteristics is most applicable to secondary groups?
Formal, intimate, face-to-face interaction
What is the "rationalization of society"?
The process of bureaucracies dominating social life
Of the following characteristics, which one least applies to bureaucracies?
Personal attention and individualism
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, what type of group do these two rival gangs represent?
Out-Groups
What conclusion can be drawn from Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity?
Group pressure will cause most people to say things they don't believe
What classification best describes groups that organize on the basis of some mutual interest, such as the Girl Scouts, Knights of Columbus, and labor unions?
Voluntary Associations
What term describes people who share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together?
Aggregate
What conclusion did Georg Simmel reach with respect to the size of a group?
As groups grow smaller, they become less stable
What does "the McDonaldization" of society refer to?
The predictability and standardization of everyday life
Groups
People who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another
Aggregate
People who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging ogether
Category
A statistic (women that have long hair etc)
Primary Groups
The family, which gives basic orientations to life
Secondary Groups
Larger,more anonymous, more formal, and more impersonal
Voluntary Associations
A group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest
The Iron Law of Oligarchy
Refers to how organizations come to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
In-Groups
Groups towards which we feel loyalty
Out-Groups
Groups towards which we feel antagonism
Reference Groups
The groups we refer to when we evaluate ourselves
Social Networks
Refers to people who are linked to one another
Clique
Clusters within a group
Electronic Community
People who meet online and discuss/coexist on there
The Rationalization of Society
That bureaucracies with their rules and emphasis on results, would increasingly dominate our lives
Goal Displacement
Even after and organization achieves its goal and no longer has a reason to continues, it still continues
Alienation
Making workers feel more like objects for the function rather than individual people
Peter Principles
Each employee of a bureaucracy is promoted to his or her level of incompetence
Corporate Culture
When bosses promote based on selff0fulfillin stereotypes
Group Dynamics
How groups influence us and how we affect groups
Small Group
Few enough members that each one can interact directly with all the other members
Dyad
Consists of two people, very unstable
Triad
Three people, unstable, two can form a stronger bond and third feels left out
Coalitions
When group members align themselves against others
Leaders
People who influence the behaviors, opinions, or attitudes of others
Instrumental Leader
Task oriented leader, tries to keep group moving towards a goal
Expressive Leader
not recognized as leader but is, controls by handling emotional situations
Groupthink
The collective tunnel vision that group members sometimes develop