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CCJS300 Exam 1
Terms in this set (99)
Why should we study research methods?
We make errors in our personal inquiries
French Sociologist who described the progression of knowledge. Describes Metaphysics and scientific explanations for problems (Empiricism)
What people create symbolically to represent reality. Also viewed as our presently accepted level of ignorance.
The repetition of experiments or studies utilizing the same methodology
is confirmation of the accuracy of findings or attainment of greater certitude in conclusions through additional observations
Probabilistic Nature of Science
Social Scientist assume their subject field is probabilistic. They believe that effects will most often occur when certain causes are present, but not in every single case.
Fanatical adherence to a preferred method at the expense of substance; view that there is one and only one way of doing research,that is, by employing the one, best method
Hirschi and Selvin's ideas of conduct in research
Objectivity, Vigilance, Empathy
Value neutrality or a dispassionate approach to the subject matter that holds constant personal bias.
a concern for accuracy and efforts to eliminate error
Willingness to put oneself in the role of the researcher.
An attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality, which in this case is crime and the criminal justice system. (the why part)
a model or schema from which to view reality. (tells us how to study and how to organize data)
The collection of accurate facts and/or data regarding crime and criminal justice policy. (The how or what is part)
Pure (basic) Research
Concerned with the acquisition of new knowledge for the sake of science or the development of the field.
Practical research concerned with solving immediate policy problems.
Concepts are assigned numerical value.
Concepts are viewed as sensitizing ideas or terms that enhance our understanding.
Purposes for Research
Exploration, Description, Explanation, and Application
The language of Research
Abstract tags put on reality and are the beginning point in all scientific endeavors.
Defines concepts by describing how they will be measured. (I measured it by...)
Concepts that have been operationalized or concepts that can vary or take on different values of a quantitative nature
The variable one is attempting to predict
Variable that causes, determines, or precedes in time the dependent variable.
Specific Statements regarding the relationship between two or more variables and are derived from more general theories.
Selection, identification, and specification of the research topic to be investigated.
Type of experimental or non experimental approach, studies of a group at one time or over a period of time, and use of control groups.
Data Collection Methods
Choice of a variety of methods such as observation, reanalysis of existing data, questionnaires, and interviews,
Analysis and Presentation of Findings
Summarizing, reporting, and statistically analyzing where appropriate and presenting findings.
Conclusions, interpretations, and limitations
What the researcher believes the study has to say
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
US Public Heath Service withheld penicillin from 425 uneducated black sharecroppers so that they could see what happens to people with syphilis
Milgram Obedience study
Teachers had to shock Confederates who answered a question wrong. Each time the teacher shocked the confederate, the amount of voltage went up. Voltage went up until it was strong enough to kill
Zimbardo's simulated prison Study
Mock prison constructed in the Basement of Stanford. Participants either Guard or inmate. Participants took their roles too seriously and the experiment was shut down.
Tea Room Trade
Humphrey pretended to be a homosexual man in order to see how other homosexual men act in a private setting. No consent from other party.
The goal of the project was to assess the causes of conflict between national groups, to anticipate social breakdown and provide eventual solutions. The proposal caused much controversy among social scientists, many of whom voiced concerns that such a study was in conflict with their professional ethics.
When researchers purposefully fabricate their or misrepresent their findings.
Type of fraud in which a writer presents that ideas or work of another author as their own.
Role of researcher
Required that one be objective and value free in reporting and approaching subject matter. Primary role is that of a scientist
Federal Regulation of Research
Institutional Review Board (IRB), Informed Consent
Institutional Review Board
College/university research committees that over see and ensure ethical research standards
Agreement from subjects to participate in research after being briefed.
Principle respect for respondent, Principle of beneficence, Principle of Justice.
Principle Respect for Respondent
Individuals are to be treated as autonomous agents.
Principle of Beneficence
Requires that research not harm subjects and that possible benefits outweigh possible causes
Principle of Justice
Both the benefits and burdens of research be distributed equitably through the selection of subjects.
Research Activities Exempt from IRB
Study of existing data, documents, records, pathological specimens, or diagnostic specimens.
Protects individuals by forbidding the use of any research or statistic that may identify them.
A governmental immunity from prosecution--a state guaranteed right to confidentiality for researchers if they are subpoenaed
General Issues for Ethical Issues in CCJS
Avoid procedures that may harm respondents,
Honor commitments to respondents and respect reciprocity, Exercise objectivity and professional integrity in performing and reporting research,
Protect confidentiality and privacy of respondents.
Serious scholars cannot be required to turn over their field notes in a grand jury investigation when the government fails to establish a substantial need for them.
Ofshe wanted to expose the extreme violence and intimidation employed by Synanon. Sued for Libel and Slander. Won case based on right to pursue research and academic freedom.
Importance of case is that Scientist realized they could sue for defamation of character.
Student involved in research on Animal rights groups. Failed to realize that research had to be preapproved by the university's IRB. Animal rights raid occurred on campus and Scarce was subpoenaed to appear before a grand jury. Jailed for refusal to violate ASA code of ethics which forbade him from showing confidential info to authorities.
Avoiding Ethical Problems
Carefully consider alternate means of gathering data.
Benchmark for comparison of all other research designs and methods.
The ultimate importance of scientific investigation is to isolate, define, and explain the relationship between key variables in order to predict and understand the underlying nature of reality.
Resolving the Causality Problem
Demonstrate the relationship,
Specify the time order of the relationship,
Eliminate rival causal factors
Demonstrate the Relationship
Shows that one variable related, increases or decreases in value, in some predictable manner along with increases or decreases in another variable.
Specify the Time Order of the Relationship
Which variable is X? Which Variable is Y?
Rival Causal Factors
Elimination of other variables that could conceivably explain away the original relationships the researcher had claimed.
(Internal & External Validity)
Concerned with whether a variable other than X affected Y.
What other variables may limit one's ability to generalize the findings in a study to larger populations or settings.
Variables related to Internal Validity.
History, Maturation, Testing, Instrumentation, Statistical Regression, Selection Biases, Experimental Mortality, Selection
The specific events occurring between the first and second measurement in addition to the experimental variable
Processes within the respondents operating as a functions of the passage of time per se (not particular to the particular events), including growing older, hungrier, tired and so on
the effects of taking a test upon the scores of a second testing
Changes in the calibration of a measuring instrument or changes in the observers or scorers used may produce changes in the obtained measurement.
Operating where groups have been selected on the basis of their extreme scores.
Resulting in differential selection of respondents for the comparison group
Differential loss of respondents from the comparison group
Certain of the multiple group quasi experimental designs, might be mistaken for the effect of the experimental variable.
Testing Effects, Selection Bias, Reactivity or Awareness of being studied, Multiple treatment interference.
The tendency of protests to destroy the naivete of the respondents with respect to the variable being studied and decrease or more predictably increase the subjects awareness or sensitivity
Non representative selection of a study group.
Atypical or artificial behavior produced by respondents awareness of being studied
Multiple Treatment Interference
When one or more treatments or predictor variables are used on the same subject.
Subjects behave Atypically if aware of being studied.
Observer follows an initial tendency to rate certain objects or subjects in a biased manner
Post Hoc error
A fallacy that one variable is the cause of an outcome because it proceeds that outcome in time.
The tendency of subjects to react to a known stimulus in the predicted manner
Double Blind Study
Neither the admin nor the participants know which group is the experimental group.
Quasi Experimental Design
No random assignments, perhaps matching
Classical Experimental Design
Equivalence, Pretest and Post tests, Experimental and Control Groups
Researchers attempt to select and assign subjects to comparison groups in such a manner that they can be assumed to be alike in all major aspects
Observation Prior to exposure to treatment
Measurement after exposure to treatment.
Experimental and Control Groups
Group that is exposed to treatment. Group that is not exposed to treatment.
Study that shows how using surveillance cameras in stores leads to more arrests
Experiment where troubled Youths would visit an actual Jail in an attempt to scare them into being civilized. Back fired.
A variety of strategies that attempt to get police away from rapid response to service and closer to the community on a day to day basis.
Provo and Silverlake Study
Major demonstration of the community based corrections movement
One Group Ex post Facto Design
A group which is not necessarily chosen on the basis of representativeness, is observed, exposed to treatment, and then observed again.
Two Group Ex Post Facto Design
Two Groups are observed (Experimental and Control). One is given treatment, the other is not.
Cross Sectional Designs
studies of one group at one time and usually refer to a representative sample of this group.
Studies of the same group over a period of time and generally are studies of the change.
Biggest advantage with experiment is control
Biggest disadvantage with experiments is Artificiality.
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