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60 terms

Unit 3: Ancient Egypt

STUDY
PLAY
herodotes
wrote that ancient egypt was the gift of the nile
nile
worlds longest river and early farmers settled near it in africa. runs from ethiopian highlands to the med. sea
silt
thanks to the annual flooding this is deposited on the land surrounding the river. It is very rich in nutrients
papyrus
native to the Nile Delta and was used for baskets, ropes, thatch roots, and rugs
wheat
primary crop grown in silt by egyptians
nile
this provides transportation, food, and fresh water
lower egypt
located around the nile river delta in NORTHERN egypt
upper egypt
located in the SOUTHERN part of egypt around the Nile River Valley
delta
land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth
Narmer
united Upper and Lower Egypt and formed the first egyptian dynasty
dynasty
line of rulers from 1 family
memphis
capital of Upper/Lower Egypt Kingdom
old kingdom
began around 2800 BC and preceded by 200 years of civil war. The internal fighting would cease and a strong centralized gov. will be eastablished
theocracy
type of government created in which there is a king/pharaoh
pharaoh
has absolute power and is the religious and political leader of the people
Middle Kingdom
around 2200 BC, kings of memphis lose power, war brakes out for control of egypt, and new dynasty begins
hieroglyphics
complex system of pictographic writing
pigmented
this type of paint was used on the hieroglyphics to make it colorful
polythesistic
belief in many gods/goddesses
ra
sun god
horus
god of sky
isis
goddess of protection
seth
god of chaos
priests
were some of the most important people in egyptian society. Helped egyptians practice their religion
ka
"soul"
natural dehydration
before mummifaication people witnessed this and it occured when a person was buried in the desert environment of North Africa
mummification
the preserving of the body
embalming
a process of removing the interal organs and try to preserve the body in lifelike manner
canopic jars
where organs were placed after removed from the body
natron
a salt/sodium rich substance in which was used for removing water from the body
wood
original coffins was usually made of...
gold
later coffins were made of real...
sarcophagus
a stone container in which was usually made from granite
granite
"black stone"
cartouche
a hieroglyphic name enclosed in a oval & adnored the coffin and sarchophagus
stone
most monuments, temples, and pyramds were made of...
pyramids
"aboveground tombs"
old kingdom
when did pyramids begin to be built for pharaohs?
mastaba
"step pyramid"
sakkara
step pyramid which overlooked memphis and was built for Djoser
imhoter
chief architect of djoser who designed sakkara
giza
pyramids were built on this plateau
sneferu
built the first SMOOTH sided pyramid
great pyramid
largest pyramid in the world that was built at giza
khufu
the great pyramid was built for this pharaoh who was the son of sneferu
great sphinx
looks over these pyramids at gize and is a huge statue with the body of a lion and the head of a man (khafre's head)
valley of the kings
pharaohs begin to be buried in underground tombs on the western bank f the nile across from luxor (thebes)
grave robbers
caused egyptian priests to bury the pharaoh underground
64
how many tombs were discovered in the valley of the kings
new kingdom
temples were first built during this era
obelisks
temples were decorated with art/hieroglyphics called
ramses the great
most powerful pharaoh in egyptian history who reigned for 66 years and was the greatest builder during the new kingdom, fathered 40-120 kids, and was a warrior king
harem
group of lovers
KV5
where was ramses buried?
King Tut
a rather obsure pharaoh of the 18th dynasty who was the son of akhenaton and claimed the throne at age 10. Died at 18
king tuts
the discovery of his tomb was the greatest archeological find in modern world history
howard carter
found king tuts tomb in 1922 in the valley of kings
hatshepsut
first known woman to be a pharaoh of both lower and upper egypt. also the first woman ruler of a civilization. her dad, thutmose 1 died and she claimed the throne
22 years
how long was hatshepsut reign?
dier el bahri
where was hatshepsut temple that she built located at?