Consequences of Ideas chapter 9 & 10
Terms in this set (47)
European politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented during the 1th century as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or
...apiori - innate ideas
...aposteriori - after experience
...everything was composed of fire
...if anything exists in an absolute way, it cannot change
Kant created a new synthesis of _____________ or _______________ but also for destroying the ______________ synthesis Thomas Aquinas had achieved in his natural theology
large, powerful, and intractably indivisible and uniform.
analytical method of knowing
combines the elements of induction and deduction seeking the logic of the facts.
Enlightenment concept of spontaneous generation make it
respectable for scientists to be entirely liberated from any dependence on theology
Kant was consumed by 2 problems that seems to defy explanations
the starry heaves above and the moral law within
that science cannot account for God or for human responsibility tied to moral freedom
to transcend certain problems of epistemology, one assumes that knowledge is not only needful but possible
Kant believed IF
knowledge is possible what would there have to be in order to make it possible
Kant;s synthesis: he agrees with the _______ that knowledge begins with experience, but he asserts that not all knowledge rises out of experience
Knowledge beings according to Kant with the ________ _____________ which receives sensations and impressions
realm we experience by sense perceptions - perceived appearances
beyond the reach of our senses
Ding an sich
the object or the thing in itself
what three things belong to the Noumenal realm?
God, self and essences
nature of being
Kant attacks the ontological argument
...on the grounds that existence is not the predicate
if anything exists then an absolutely necessary being must also exist
Kant argues the cosmological argument
since he argues the ontological and the law of causality - he argues the law of causality has no meaning or application except in the sensible world
Kant ________ _________ deny the existence of God.
Kant does _______ that God's existence can be rationally demonstrated _
Kant's metaphysical and theoogical agnosticism is supported by the theory of
the law against which (word) behavies is the law of noncontradiction
Because of Kant's metaphysical skepticism or agnosticism, philosophers turned their attention to constructing a
philosophy of history
Main focus before Kant
metaphysics and epistemology
Main focus after Kant
history and anthropology
What is Hegel's axiom and what does it mean?
"What is rational is real, and what is real is rational"
If everything that is real is also rational, then according to Hegel it can be known
How do Hegel's views of understanding and reason differ from Kant's views?
Kant believes understanding is bounded by the finite and cannot gain absolute knowledge.
Hegel sees reason and understanding as two completely different powers.
why Hegel speaks of Reason with a capital 'R'?
Absolute Spirit, which is pure thought or absolute knowledge. TThe Absolute Spirit works itself out in history.
How does Hegel's dialectic process begin and then what?
antithesis - which creates an impasse.
How is this Hegal impasse resolved?
It is resolved by a synthesis, which rescues what is true in both the thesis & antithesis.
What happens once Hegal synthesis is achieved?
A new thesis is formed, a new antithesis is implied...and a new synthesis is necessary.
What does Marx believe is the primary catalyst for human self-realization and the most dynamic process b/n man and nature?
The philosophy of Marx, known popularly as _____________ __________ represents a sharp contrast with Hegel's philosophy of .
history, or dialectical idealism
What does Marx claim is the force moving history?
Marx redefines man as Homo faber, "man the maker". What does this definition suggest man's identity is bound up with?
Marx sees man's identity bound up with his labor
Marx discerned four distinct aspects of the worker's alienation. What are they?
3. His "species being"
4. Other Beings
What type of economic system did Marx promote & how does it differ from capitalism?
What is the problem with communism?
When everyone owns everything, no one owns anything
According to Marx, every society has two things. What are they?
a substructure and a superstructure
What does Marx consider to be a society's substructure?
Its economic basis or material order
Labor theory of value
Marx says that the value of a product is based on the amount of labor put into it.
What does Marx consider to be a society's superstructure?
society's ideology in such areas as religion, morality, and law.