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14 terms

AP Bio Chapter 22 Vocabulary

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natural selection
the mechanism for evolution
evolutionary adaptation
natural selection leads to ___________ ___________, as individuals with beneficial heritable traits leave more offspring, and the frequency of such traits in a population increases over generations
evolution
the changes in a population's genetic composition over time
taxonomy
the branch of biology that names and classifies organisms; originated in the work of Linnaeus
fossils
______ are remnants or impressions of past organisms
paleontology
the study of fossils
catastrophism
Cuvier believed in ___________; he maintained that the differences he observed in the fossils found in different strata were the result of locat catastrophic events such as floods or drought and were not indicative of evolution
gradualism
the idea that immense change is the cumulative result tof slow but continuous processes; proposed by Hutton
artificial selection
humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that posses desired traits - __________ __________
homology
similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry
homologous structures
the arms, forelegs, flippers, and wings of different mammals are ________ _________ that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestry
vestigial organs
some of the most intriguing homologous structures are _____ _________, structures of marginal importance to the organism
biogeography
the study of the past and present distribution of species
endemic
plants and animals found nowhere else in the world