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a localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
the aggregate of genes in a population at any one time is called the population's ______ _______
states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population's gene pool remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work
the condition describing a non-evolving population, which follows these 5 conditions: large population, no gene flow, no mutations, random mating, no natural selection
similar deviations from the expected result explain how allele frequencies can fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next
when a sudden change in the environment may drastically reduce the size of a population, the survivors may have passed through a restrictive "bottleneck", and their gene pool may no longer be reflective of the original population's gene pool
when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool isn't reflective of the source population
genetic additions to and/or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes
a population is said to display ________ ________ for a character if two or more distinct morphs are each represented in high enough frequencies to be readily noticeable
the percent, on average, of a population's loci that are heterozygous in members of the population
differences between the gene pools of separate populations or population subgroups
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals
the contribution of a genotype to the next generation comparted to the contributions of alternative genotypes for the same locus
__________ ________ is most common when a population's environment changes or when members of a population migrate to a new habitat with different environmental conditions from their former one
________ ________ occurs when conditions favor individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotype
_________ _________ acts against extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants
balancing selection; balanced polymorphism
_________ ________ occurs when natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phtnotypic forms in a population, a state called ___________ _________
if individuals who are heterozygous at a particular gene locus have greater fitness than the homozygous, natural selection will tend to maintain two or more alleles at that locus
the fitness of any one morph that declines if it becomes too common in the population
some of the genetic variation in populations probably has little or no impact on reproductive success, and thus natural selection doesn't affect those alleles
marked differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics, which are not directly associated with reproduction
(selection "within the same sex") is a direct competition amon individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex
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