APUSH Unit 4 KTPTK
Terms in this set (91)
Revolution of 1800
Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency. The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America's political system.
A system, prevalent during the Gilded Age, in which political parties granted jobs and favors to party regulars who delivered votes on election day. both an essential wellspring of support for both parties and a source of conflict within the Republican party.
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the principle of "judicial review"—the idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionality.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary.
Orders in Council
Edicts issued by the British Crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping. The French responded by ordering the seizure of all vessels entering British ports, thereby cutting off American merchants from trade with both parties.
Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815. A continual source of conflict between Britain and the United States in the early national period.
Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 until his death in 1835,
strengthened the role of the courts by establishing the principle of judicial review. During his tenure, the court also expanded the powers of the federal government through a series of decisions that established federal supremacy over the states.
Revolutionary War soldier and vice president under Thomas Jefferson, perhaps most famous for fatally wounding Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804. In 1806, led a failed plot to separate the trans-Mississippi West from the United States. Narrowly acquitted of treason, fled to France where he
tried to convince Napoleon to ally with Britain against
War of 1812
Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers
Congress of Vienna
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war.
Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.
Era of Good Feelings
Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank.
Panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.
Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36°30'.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank.
Cohens v. Virginia
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Fletcher v. Peck
Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments
(Florida Purchase Treaty) Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets.
American naval officer whose decisive victory over a British fleet on Lake Erie during the War of 1812 reinvigorated American morale and paved the way for General William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Francis Scott Key
American author and lawyer who composed the "Star Spangled Banner"—now the national anthem—purportedly while observing the bombardment of Fort McHenry from the deck of a British ship where he was detained.
Revolutionary war soldier, statesman, and fifth president of the United States. As president, he supported protective tariffs and a national bank, but maintained a Jeffersonian opposition to federally-funded internal improvements. Though Monroe sought to transcend partisanship, even undertaking a goodwill tour of the states in 1817, his presidency was rocked by bitter partisan and sectional conflicts.
British foreign secretary who proposed what would later become the Monroe Doctrine-a declaration issued by James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from acquiring new territories in the Americas.
Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams' favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824.
Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. The practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system.
Tariff of Abominations
Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the Tariff, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures.
Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833.
Passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties.
Indian Removal Act
Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
Trail of Tears
Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey.
Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers.
Popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833.
U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with "hard," or metallic, currency. Issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West.
Panic of 1837
Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In response, President Martin Van Buren proposed the "Divorce Bill," which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply.
John Quincy Adams
Son of second president John Adams, He served as secretary of State under James Monroe before becoming the sixth president of the United States. A strong advocate of national finance and improvement, faced opposition from states' rights advocates in the South and West. His controversial election—the allegedly "corrupt bargain" of 1824—and his lack of political acumen further
hampered his presidential agenda.
War hero, congressman and seventh president of the United States. A Democrat, ushered in a new era in American politics, advocating white manhood suffrage and cementing party loyalties through the spoils system. As president, he dismantled the Bank of the United States, asserted federal supremacy in the nullification crisis, and oversaw the harsh policy of Indian removal in the South.
John C. Calhoun
Vice president under Andrew Jackson, he became a U.S. Senator from South Carolina after a public break with the administration. A fierce supporter of states' rights, advocated South Carolina's position during the nullification crisis. In the 1840s and 1850s, he staunchly defended slavery, accusing free-state Northerners of conspiring to free the slaves.
Lawyer, congressman and secretary of state, teamed up with Henry Clay in the Bank War against Andrew Jackson in 1832. Hoping to avoid sectional conflict, opposed the annexation of Texas but later urged the North to support the Compromise of 1850.
Secretary of state and U.S. Senator from Kentucky, he was known as the "Great Compromiser", helping to negotiate the Missouri Compromise in 1820, the Compromise Tariff of 1833 and the Compromise of 1850. As a National Republican, later Whig, advocated a strong national agenda of internal improvements and protective tariffs, known as the
President of the Republic of Texas and U.S. Senator, led Texas to independence in 1836 as commander in chief of the Texas army. As President of the Republic, unsuccessfully sought annexation into the United States. Once Texas officially joined the Union in 1845, elected to the U.S. Senate, later returning to serve as Governor of Texas until 1861, when he was removed from office for
refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy
Secret organization of Irish miners that campaigned, at times violently, against poor working conditions in the Pennsylvania mines.
Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics.
Eli Whitney's invention that sped up the process of harvesting cotton. Made cotton cultivation more profitable, revitalizing the Southern economy and increasing the importance of slavery in the South.
Federal government bureau that reviews patent applications. A patent is a legal recognition of a new invention, granting exclusive rights to the inventor for a period of years.
Cult of Domesticity
Pervasive nineteenth-century cultural creed that venerated the domestic role of women. It gave married women greater authority to shape home life but limited opportunities outside the domestic sphere.
Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. The introduction of this in the 1830s fueled the establishment of large-scale commercial agriculture in the Midwest.
Privately funded, toll-based public road constructed in the early nineteenth century to facilitate commerce.
New York state canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest.
Short-lived, speedy mail service between Missouri and California that relied on lightweight riders galloping between closely placed outposts.
Term referring to a series of nineteenth-century transportation innovations—turnpikes, steamboats, canals, and railroads—that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy.
Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network.
British-born mechanic and father of the American "Factory System", establishing textile mills throughout New England.
Great American inventor, best known for his Cotton Gin, which revolutionized the Southern economy. He also pioneered the use of interchangeable parts in the production of muskets.
Massachusetts-born inventor of the sewing machine. Unable to convince American manufacturers to adopt his invention, he briefly moved to England before returning to the United States to find his sewing machine popularized by Isaac Singer. won a patent infringement suit against Singer in 1854 and continued to produce sewing machines until his death.
American inventor and manufacturer, who made his fortune by improving on Elias Howe's sewing machine. His machine fueled the ready-made clothing industry in New England.
Inventor of the telegraph and the telegraphic code that bears his name. He led the effort to connect Washington and Baltimore by telegraph and transmitted the first long-distance message—"What hath God wrought"—in May of 1844.
Inventor of the steel plow, which revolutionized farming in the Midwest, where fragile wooden plows had failed to break through the thick soil.
Inventor of the mower-reaper, a horse-drawn contraption that fueled the development of large-scale agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West.
Pennsylvania-born painter-engineer, who constructed the first operating steam boat, the Clermont, in 1807.
The Age of Reason
Thomas Paine's anticlerical treatise that accused churches of seeking to acquire "power and profit" and to "enslave mankind."
Eighteenth century religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge. Most deists rejected biblical inerrancy and the divinity of Christ, but they did believe that a Supreme Being created the universe.
Believe in a unitary deity, reject the divinity of Christ, and emphasize the inherent goodness of mankind. Inspired in part by Deism, first caught on in New England at the end of the eighteenth century.
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival characterized by emotional mass "camp meetings" and widespread conversion. Brought about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members.
Religious followers of Joseph Smith, who founded a communal, oligarchic religious order in the 1830s, officially known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Facing deep hostility from their neighbors, eventually migrated west and established a flourishing settlement in the Utah desert.
American Temperance Society
Founded in Boston in 1826 as part of a growing effort of nineteenth-century reformers to limit alcohol consumption.
Seneca Falls Convention
Gathering of feminist activists in New York, where Elizabeth Cady Stanton read her "Declaration of Sentiments," stating that "all men and women are created equal."
Communal society of around one thousand members, established in Indiana by Robert Owen. The community attracted a hodgepodge of individuals, from scholars to crooks, and fell apart due to infighting and confusion after just two years.
Transcendentalist commune founded by a group of intellectuals, who emphasized living plainly while pursuing the life of the mind. The community fell into debt and dissolved when their communal home burned to the ground in 1846.
One of the more radical utopian communities established in the nineteenth century, it advocated "free love," birth control, and eugenics. Utopian communities reflected the reformist spirit of the age.
Called this for their lively dance worship, they emphasized simple, communal living and were all expected to practice celibacy. First transplanted to America from England by Mother Ann Lee, six thousand members were counted by 1840, though by the 1940s the movement had largely died out.
Hudson River School
American artistic movement that produced romantic renditions of local landscapes.
Literary and intellectual movement that emphasized individualism and self-reliance, predicated upon a belief that each person possesses an "inner-light" that can point the way to truth and direct contact with God.
Methodist revivalist who traversed the frontier from Tennessee to Illinois in the first decades of the nineteenth century, preaching against slavery and alcohol, and calling on sinners to repent.
One of the leading revival preachers during the Second Great Awakening, He presided over mass camp meetings throughout New York state, championing temperance and abolition, and urging women to play a greater role in religious life.
Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), gained a following after an angel directed him to a set of golden plates which, when deciphered, became the Book of Mormon. His communal, authoritarian church and his advocacy of plural marriage antagonized his neighbors in Ohio, Missouri, and finally Illinois, where he was murdered by a mob in 1844.
Second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, led his Mormon followers to Salt Lake City, Utah after Joseph Smith's death. Under his discipline and guidance, the Utah settlement prospered, and the church expanded to include over 100,000 members by his death in 1877.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education and a champion of public education, advocating more and better school houses, longer terms, better pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum.
New England teacher-author and champion of mental health reform, assembled damning reports on insane asylums and petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to improve conditions.
Elizabeth Cody Stanton
Abolitionist and woman suffragist, organized the first Woman's Rights Convention near her home in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. After the Civil War, she urged Congress to include women in the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, despite urgings from Frederick Douglass to let freedmen have their hour. In 1869, she, along with Susan B. Anthony, founded the National Woman Suffrage Association to lobby for a constitutional amendment granting women the vote.
Susan B. Anthony
Reformer and woman suffragist, With long-time friend Elizabeth Cady Stanton, advocated for temperance and women's rights in New York State, established the abolitionist Women's Loyal League during the Civil War, and founded the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 to lobby for a constitutional amendment giving women the vote.
James Fennimore Cooper
American novelist and a member of New York's Knickerbocker Group, wrote adventure tales, including The Last of the Mohicans, which won acclaim on both sides of the Atlantic.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Boston-born scholar and leading American transcendentalist, whose essays, most notably "Self-Reliance," stressed individualism, self-improvement, optimism, and freedom.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist and author of Walden: Or Life in the Woods. A committed idealist and abolitionist, he advocated civil disobedience, spending a night in jail for refusing to pay a poll tax to a government that supported slavery.
Brooklyn-born poet and author of Leaves of Grass, a collection of poems, written largely in free verse, which exuberantly celebrated America's democratic spirit.
Massachusetts-born poet who, despite spending her life as a recluse, created a vivid inner world through her poetry, exploring themes of nature, love, death and immortality. Refusing to publish during her lifetime, she left behind nearly two thousand poems, which were published after her death.
New York author who spent his youth as a whaler on the high seas, an experience which no doubt inspired his epic novel, Moby Dick.
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