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116 terms

Chemistry Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy level to a ______ ______ ______.
Lower Energy Level
The Bohr model of the atom was an attempt to explain hydrogen's ____-_________ ______
Line-emission Spectrum
According to the Bohr model of the atom, the single electron of a hydrogen atom circles the nucleus in _______, ______ ______.
Specific, allowed orbits
Louis de Broglie's research suggested what?
Electrons should be considered as waves confirmed to the space around an atomic nucleus.
All of the following describe the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, except....
A. it states, that it is impossible to determine, simultaneously, both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle.
B. it is one of the fundamental principles of our present understanding of light and matter.
C. it helped lay the foundation for the modern quantum theory.
D. it helps to locate an electron in an atom.
D. it helps to locate an electron in an atom.
The quantum number that indicates the position of an orbital about the three axes in space is the ______ quantum number.
Magnetic
How many quantum numbers are needed to describe the energy state of an electron?
4
The main energy levels of an atom are indicated by the _____ quantum number.
Principal
The number of sub-levels within each energy level of an atom is equal to the value of the _______ ______ _______.
Principal quantum number
The spin quantum number indicates that the number of possible spin states for an electron in an orbital is ?
2
An electron for which n=4 has more ______ than an electron for which n=2.
Energy
The set of orbitals that are dumbbell shaped and directed along the x, y, z axes are called _____ _______.
P-orbitals
A spherical electron cloud surrounding an atomic nucleus would best represent an _ _______.
S-orbital
The number of possible different orbital shapes for the third energy level is ?
3
The number of orbitals for the D sub-level is?
5
The total number of orbitals that can exist at the second main energy level is?
4
How many electrons are needed to completely fill the fourth energy level.
32
If 8 electrons completely fill a main energy level, what is n?
2
That statement that an electron occupies the lowest available energy orbital is?
The Aufbau Principle
"Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin" is a statement of ?
Hund's Rule
Which of the following rules requires that each of the P-orbitals at a particular energy level receive on electron before any of them can have two electrons?
Hund's Rule
The Aufbau principle states that an electron?
Occupies the lowest available energy level
If the S and P sub-levels of the highest main energy level of an atom are filled, how many electrons are in this main energy level?
8
In Bohr's model of the atom, where are the electrons and protons located?
The electrons move around the protons, which are at the center of the atom.
The principal quantum number indicates what property of an electron?
Energy level
What is the shape of the 3p atomic orbital?
Dumb bell
What is the maximum number of F-orbitals in any single energy level in an atom?
7
What is the maximum number of electrons in the second principal energy level?
8
The shape (not the size) of an electron cloud is determined by the electron's ______.
Energy sub-level
If the spin of one electron in an orbital is clockwise, what is the spin of the other electron in that orbital?
Counterclockwise
How many half-filled orbitals are in a bromine atom?
1
Emission of light from an atom occurs when an electron ?
Drops from a higher to a lower energy level.
T or F: The number of electrons in an orbital depends on the orbital's shape.
F
T or F: An S-orbital is in the shape of a dumbbell.
F
T or F: Energy is found only in specific discrete amounts, called quanta.
T
T or F: As the amount of energy carried by a wave decreases, its wavelength increases.
T
T or F: An orbital forms the boundaries where electrons must be contained.
F
T or F: There are a total of 5 different types of D-Orbitals.
T
T or F: Six electrons can exist in a P-orbital.
F
T or F: The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to detect the position of an electron or velocity of an electron.
F
T or F: Although the precise location of an electron cannot be determined, it is possible to determine the probability that an electron will occupy a certain region around the nucleus.
T
T or F: The unit for measuring the energy of a wave is Hertz.
F
T or F: An element can be identified by the characteristic bright-line atomic emission spectrum it can produce.
T
T or F: Valence refers to the total number of electrons that exist in the orbitals that occupy the outermost energy level of an atom.
T
Electromagnetic radiation is a kind of (1) ________ that behaves like a(n) (2)________ as it travels through space. (3)_________ is one type of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples include X-rays, radio waves, and microwaves. All waves can be characterized by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and (4)_______. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave is called a(n) (5)________. The height of a wave from the origin to a crest or from the origin to a trough is the (6)_______. (7)_________ is the number of waves that pass a given point in one second. The SI unit for frequency is the (8)_____, which is equivalent to one wave per second.


Word Bank: Amplitude; Energy; Frequency; Hertz; Light; Wave; Wavelength; Speed
(1) Energy
(2) Wave
(3) Light
(4) Speed
(5) Wavelength
(6) Amplitude
(7) Frequency
(8) Hertz
If twice the length of A passes a stationary point every second, what is the frequency of the wave?
2
A(n) ______ is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.
Quantum
According to Planck's theory, for a given frequency, v, matter can emit or absorb energy only in
Whole-number multiples of hv
The ______ is the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it.
Photon Effect
What equation would you use to calculate the energy of a photon?
Ephoton = hv
T or F: Like the visible spectrum, an atomic emission spectrum is a continuous range of colors.
F
T or F: Each element has a unique atomic emission spectrum.
T
T or F: A flame test can be used to identify the presence of certain elements in a compound.
T
T or F: The fact that only certain colors appear in an element's atomic emission spectrum indicates that only certain frequencies of light are emitted.
T
T or F: Atomic emission spectra can be explained by the wave model of light.
F
T or F: The neon atoms in a neon sign emit their characteristic color of light as they absorb energy.
F
T or F: When an atom emits light, photons having certain specific energies are being emitted.
T
What is the shape of an S-orbital?
Sphere
What is the relationship between the size on an S-orbital and the principal energy level in which it is found?
Its size increases as energy levels increase.
What is the shape of a P-orbital? How many P-orbitals are there in a sub-level?
It is shaped like a peanut, or a dumbbell. It has 3 P-orbitals in a sub-level.
How many electrons can each orbital hold?
2
How many D-orbitals are there in a give sub-level? How many total electrons can the D-Orbitals in a sub-level hold?
5, and they can hold a total of 10 electrons.
How likely is it that an electron occupying a P or D-orbital would be found very near an atoms nucleus?
Not very likely, because the shape of these orbitals locates most of the electrons further from the nucleus.
The lowest allowable energy state of an atom is called its ___________ __________.
Ground State
Bohr's model of the atom predicted the ______ of the lines in the hydrogen's atomic emission spectrum.
Frequencies
According to Bohr's atomic model, the smaller an electron's orbit, the _______ the atom's energy level.
Lower
According to Bohr's atomic model, the larger an electron's orbit, the ________ the atoms energy level.
Higher
Bohr proposed that when energy is added to a hydrogen atom, its ________ moves to a higher-energy orbit.
Electron
According to Bohr's atomic model, the hydrogen atom emits a photon corresponding to the difference between the _________ associated with the two orbits it transitions between.
Energy Levels
Bohr's atomic model failed to explain the _________________ of elements other than hydrogen.
Atomic Emission spectrum
If you look closely, you see the wavelength of a fast moving car? Yes or No? Why?
No, its wavelength would be to small to be detected.
The modern model of the atom that treats electrons as waves is?
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
What states that it is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time?
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
A three-dimensional region around the nucleus representing the probability of finding an electron is the?
Atomic Orbital
Originally applied to the hydrogen atom, this led to the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Schrodinger Wave Equation
How do the Bohr Model and he quantum mechanical model of the atom differ in how they describe electrons?
Bohr's model doesn't show the wave's properties of electrons, while the quantum mechanical model does.
Atomic orbitals (do, do not) have an exactly defined size.
Do not
Each orbital may contain at most (two, four) electrons.
Two
All S-orbitals are (spherically shaped, dumbbell shaped).
Spherically Shaped
A principal energy has (n, n2) energy sublevels.
n
The maximum number of (electrons, orbitals) related to each principal energy level equals 2n2.
Electrons
There are (three, five) equal energy P-Orbitals.
Three
Hydrogen's principal energy level 2 consists of (2s and 3s, 2s and 2p) orbitals.
2s and 2p
Hydrogen's principal energy level 3 consists of (nine, three) orbitals.
Nine
The arrangement of electrons in an atom is called the atom's (1)_______. Electrons in an atom tend to assume the arrangement that gives the atom the (2)_________ possible energy. This arrangement of electrons is the most (3)______ arrangement and is called the atom's (4)______________. Three rules define how electrons can be arranged in an atom's orbitals. The (5)____________ states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. The (6)___________ states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite (7)______. (8)______ states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbitals.


Word Bank: Aufbau Principle; Electron Configuration; Ground-state electron configuration; Hund's Rule: Lower; Pauli Exclusion Principle; Spins; Stable
(1) Electron Configuration
(2) Lowest
(3) Stable
(4) Ground-state electron configuration
(5)Aufbau Principle
(6) Pauli Exclusion Principle
(7) Spin
(8) Hund's Rule
The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals are called ________ _______.
Valenec Electrons
In an electron-dot structure, the element's symbol represents the ?
Atom's nucleus and inner-level electrons
Which electrons are represented by the dots in an electron-dot structure?
Valence Electrons
The set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of an element.
Atomic Emission Spectrum
The minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.
Quantum
A form of energy that exhibits wave like behavior as it travels through space.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probably location.
Atomic Orbital
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave.
Wavelength
The lowest allowable energy state of an atom
Ground State
A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy.
Photon
The emission of electrons from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it.
Photoelectric Effect
A figure indicating the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals.
Principal Quantum Number
Which of the following can you conclude based on the de Brogile equation?
A. Waves behave like particles
B. Most Particles are electrons
C. All matter has an associated wavelength
D. All matter behaves like particles
C. All matter has an associated wavelength
Describe the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
It is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.
Electrons only exists on __________ and no where else.
Energy levels
Electrons can move _____ in energy levels in energy (Electrical, heat, mechanical) is applied.
Up
Electrons are in a temporary state called ________ _____ when energy is absorbed and when it loses energy it returns to _____ _____. The energy that electrons had, is released when it returns to the _____ _____, producing _____.
(in order) Excited state; ground state; ground state; waves
If Electrons where every we would see a _____ ______.
Continuous spectrum
Electron is a _____ (matter)
Particle
Waves are _____ (light)
Energy
A ______ is a discrete amount of energy.
-Nothing can have less energy than a _______.
- Photon carries a ______.
- Energy can be a particle
Quantum
Electron can be thought of as a _____.
wave
Light can exist as particle & wave is the ____ ____ ______ ______
Dual Nature of Light
Electrons can exist as wave & particle is the ____ _____ ___ ______.
Dual Nature of Electrons
__________ Quantum Number- Main energy Level=n
___________ Quantum Number- Sub-levels= s=0 p=1 d=2 f=3
___________ Quantum Number- Specific Orbital
___________ Quantum Number- Direction of Spin
(in order) Principal, Orbital, Magnetic, Spin
He proposed wave equation and Dual Nature of Electrons.
de Brogile
Developed wave equation that treated a hydrogen electron as a wave.
Schrodinger
Orbital Quantum Number tells us
Shape of Orbital, Sublevel
Each electron occupies the lowest energy level
Aufbau Principle
Only 2 electrons can exist in one orbital, and only when the electrons have opposite spins.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
There has to be an electron in each orbital of a sub-level before you put 2 electrons in an orbital.
Hund's Rule