75 terms

APUSH The American Pageant 12e Chapter 31 The U.S. in World War I

"Peace without victory"
President Wilson call to the fighting nations that neither side would impose harsh terms on the others. Wilson hoped that all nations would join a "league for peace".
Unlimited submarine warfare
Policy enacted by GE declaring they would sink all ships, including America's, in the war zone, thus jerking on their "string," in the Sussex ultimatum
Zimmerman note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Russian Revolution (March 1917)
Communists not involved
Led by women, farmers and underpaid workers, a group of revolutionaries toppled the regime in the winter of 1917. This would mark the beginning of a violent process of civil war. The Czar was removed. This took Russia out of WWI
War declaration (April 1917)
Wilson declared war on Germany claiming "it was made in Germany". They initiated war with unlimited sub warfare, mass civilian killings, agents, and the Zimmerman note
"War to end all wars" / "Make the world safe for democracy"
On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson went before a joint session of Congress to seek a Declaration of War against Germany in order that the world "be made safe for democracy." Four days later, Congress voted to declare war, with six senators and fifty congressmen dissenting. "It is a fearful thing," he told Congress in his speech, "to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance." Wilson did not exaggerate; in 1917 the war in Europe had already lasted two-and-a-half bloody years and had become one of the most murderous conflicts in human history. By the time the war ended a year and a half later, an entire generation was decimated—France alone lost half its men between the ages of twenty and thirty-two. The maimed bodies of millions of European men who survived bore mute testimony to the war's savagery.
Wilson's "Fourteen Points" address
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
George Creel
head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.
George M. Cohan
American composer famous for his World War I songs: "Over There" and "You're A Grand Ole Flag"
Espionage Act (1917)
United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies. The legislation was passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who feared any widespread dissent in time of war, thinking that it constituted a real threat to an American victory.
Sedition Act (1918)
added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
William ("Big Bill") Haywood
Leader of the IWW ( Industrial Workers of the World ) whose goal was to organize all workers into one union to overthrow Capitalism
Schenck v. United States (1919)
declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
War Industries Board (Bernard Baruch)
Managed the transition of the US from a consumer economy to a war economy.
"Work or fight" rule
requiring all able bodied males to be regularly employed in some usefull occupation, issued by teh War Department in 1918
National War Labor Board
helped resolve labor disputes that might slow down war production.
A labor union created by Samuel Gompers that was the ONLY labor union that only accepted skilled workers
IWW ("Wobblies")
Industrial workers of the world, most radical group. Under Haywood, envisioned utopian state run by workers. Small group, but accepted blacks, women, and immigrants
National Woman's Party (Alice Paul)
group opposed to American participation and women participation in the war; demonstrated with marches and hunger strikes. hated "kaiser" Wilson
National American Woman Suffrage Assn.
supported the war, peace and women effort
Nineteenth Amendment (1920)
granted women the right to vote; its ratification capped a movement for women's rights that dated to the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. Although women were voting in state elections in 12 states when the amendment passed, it enabled 8 million women to vote in the presidential election of 1920.
Food and Drug Administration (Herbert Hoover)
helped to feed soldiers and allies, wheatless wed, meatless tues. voluntary
"Victory gardens"
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
Banned the making, selling, and transporting of alcoholic beverages in the US
Liberty / Victory Loans
fundraisers for war support led by H.H raised 2/3 war cost led to patriotism
nickname for American troops in Europe
Draft Act (1917)
Europe needed an army, seemed patriotic
Bolshevik Revolution (November 1917)
made Russia withdraw from the war, allowed Germany to concentrate its power towards the west border (France)
German spring offensive (1918)
half million join the trenches
Marshal Foch
Commander of the Allied forces who ordered attacks along a line from Verdun to the North Sea. He made the crucial move of the forces to the area between the Meuse River and the Argonne Forest.
Battle where Americans saw their first serious action; helped turn back a German offensive on the Marne River in June 1918
Second Battle of the Marne
was the last major German Spring Offensive on the Western Front during the First World War. The German attack failed when an Allied counterattack led by France overwhelmed the Germans, inflicting severe casualties. It was the turning point of the war in the western front.
St. Michel salient
German dagger in France's flank
Gen. John J. Pershing
the US General that led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.
Meuse-Argonne offensive
also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. The whole offensive was planned by Marshall Ferdinand Foch to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing German forces to surrender;
German surrender (November 11, 1918)
Asked Wilson to draft a treaty based on the Fourteen Points
Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge
Wanted the US to stay neutral in fear of the US being dragged into further conflicts, chairman of the Senate Commitee on Foreign Relations, not chosen to come to Paris (Republican)
Vittorio Orlando
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Georges Clemençeau
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Sen. William Borah ("irreconcilables")
isolationist; disliked league of nations
Versailles Treaty (June 1919)
The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. NOT BASED ON FOURTEEN POINTS. The US Senate rejected it.
Wilson's tour and stroke (September 1919)
Wilson presented the Versailles treaty to the Senate on 10 July 1919, in the supreme confidence that that body would not dare to refuse to give its consent to ratification. There were many signs of danger ahead. One was the persistence of the tradition of isolationism, which before 1914 had been the cornerstone of American foreign policy. Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles would carry heavy new international responsibilities for the United States: Article 10 of the covenant guaranteed the political independence and territorial integrity of all member nations, and support of the covenant's peacekeeping machinery might well entail the risk of war. Moreover, Republicans controlled the Senate, and Wilson's implacable personal and political foe, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, was chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee.

Lodge would have preferred to reject the treaty outright, but in order to preserve unity within his party, he accepted a plan offered by more moderate Republicans—to approve the treaty subject to certain reservations. The most important of these was a reservation to Article 10 that stipulated that the United States assumed no obligation under this article unless Congress, by joint resolution or otherwise, should specifically assume such obligation.

Saying that the enemies of the League were poisoning the wells of public opinion, Wilson set out upon a tour of the West in order to purify them. In one of the great forensic efforts in American history, he traveled eight thousand miles and delivered thirty-two major addresses between 3 and 25 September 1919. During the early hours of 26 September, Wilson suffered a stroke warning, which ended his tour. Then, on 2 October, after his return to Washington, Wilson suffered a devastating stroke that paralyzed his left side and for a time threatened his life.

Read more: The treaty fight in the united states, 1919-1920 - Woodrow Wilson - policy, war, election, foreign, second http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/Woodrow-Wilson-The-treaty-fight-in-the-united-states-1919-1920.html#b#ixzz1nAYlDsuV
Lodge's fourteen "Reservations"
Lodge understood that he could not have Republican senators oppose a peace treaty outright without alienating the party from the American public. Instead, he came up with a plan to compel the Democrats to choose between approving the ratification of the Versailles Treaty with Republican-sponsored reservations or rejecting it. By doing so, he intended to place the blame for a failed treaty on the Democrats, while he appeased two segments of the Republican party: the reservationists, who would only accept a league covenant in a modified form, and the irreconcilables, who opposed the league under all circumstances.
Lodge's plan utilized both his leverage as the leader of the Republicans and as the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. As leader, he stacked the Foreign Relations Committee with reservationists and irreconcilables, who would delay consideration of the treaty until popular opinion could be turned against Wilson's version of the league. Then, he canvassed the conference, shoring up opinion against the league provision. Finally, from his position as chairman, he helped draft the treaty's famous fourteen reservations designed to alter the interpretation of the treaty once it was ratified.
Treaty rejection (November 1919 and March 1920)
Wilson influenced Democrats to vote against fourteen reservations
Warren G. Harding
president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism
1920 election
-Wilson died
-Warren G. Harding wins 1920 election
-US never ratifies Treaty of Versailles , never joined League
August 1914 War Starts
Central Powers: Germany Allied Powers: Britain
Austria-Hungary France
Turkey Russia
Feb. 1915 Germany announces submarine warfare
May 1915 Lusitania sunk (Wilson protests; Bryan resigns)
March 1916 Germany agrees to Sussex Pledge regarding U-boat activity
Nov. 1916 Wilson re-elected ("He Kept Us Out of War")
Jan. 1917 Wilson's "Peace Without Victory" speech
Jan. 1917 Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare
March 1917 Russian Revolution; Zimmerman note
April 1917 U.S. enters the War; draft law passed
Nov. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
Jan. 1918 Wilson's Fourteen Points
Spring 1918 American troops arrive
May 1918 Chateau-Thierry
Sept. 1918 St. Michel salient and Meuse-Argonne offensive
Nov. 1918 Armistice signed (10 million killed; 53,000 are Americans)
Jan. 1919 Paris Peace Conference opens
June 1919 Treaty of Versailles completed
July 1919 Lodge holds hearings in the Senate regarding ratification
Sept. 1919 Wilson goes to the country; suffers stroke
Nov. 1919 Lodge's fourteen reservations. Senate defeat of treaty
March 1920 Final defeat of treaty