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Apprehension about a future threat


response to an immediate threat

arousal, anxiety, and stress

which three terms are used interchangeably, as synonyms for one another


refers to the composite (blend) of physiological (bodily) and psychological (mental) activity in a person at a given point in time

arousal, comatose, frenzied

____ levels vary naturally throughout the day and vary on a continuum from ____ (i.e., low) to ___ (i.e., high

is not

arousal is or is not directionally associated with an event's pleasantness.

RAS (Reticular Activating System)
thalamic nuclei (Thalamus)
frontal cortex

Brain mechanisms involved in arousal include the


The __ is a network of nerve fibers that originates in the medulla oblongata (brain stem area) and proceeds up through the midbrain into the neocortex, the place where thought is processed.

is to detect new and novel stimuli. ---alerts the brain ''

The task of the RAS is to __ __ ___ ___When something new or different is perceived in the environment, the RAS alerts the ___to possible danger by causing an ''arousal state.'' If a stimulus, such as a sound, is repetitive in nature, the RAS calms the brain and causes it to enter various peaceful states, depending upon the nature of the stimulus.


Arousal in short spurts is ____. We perform better under ___ arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty


a negative emotional state characterized by
scanning of the environment and
associated physiological activation/arousal

thought/cognitive component
physiological/bodily/somatic component


inital appraisal, emotional feeling, situationally based- behavioral response

Robert Levy's 3 stage cognitive model of emotion includes

initial approval

The meaning of the event is determined by cognitive assessment, based upon cultural schemas.

Refers to bodily sensations that are felt as a result of cognitive appraisal.

emotional feeling

Rapid breathing, tightness in the stomach, blood rushing to your head, and headache.

what physical feelings are associated with anxiety

situationally based behavioral response

this is the observable response carried out by an individual in response to the first two stages.

situationally based behavioral response

is usually automatic and instantaneous because it has been structured in the neural networks of the brain.
The brain automatically cognizes event in a particular way consistent with cultural schemas because of cultural learning and prior individual experience.

because they are structured within the nervous system, and cultural schemas play a central role in the construction of emotions through the cognitive construction of meanings with resulting physiological changes and behavioral actions.

why do situational based behavior seemed natural

state anxiety

refers to the fluid/situational aspects of anxiety. It is ever changing, and fluctuates in response to situational circumstances.

trait anxiety

refers to a personality characteristic
it is an acquired behavioral tendency/disposition that influences behavior.

self report measures/scales
physiological measures

How are arousal and anxiety measured?

Individuals who have more trait anxiety typically experience higher state anxiety levels in highly competitive, evaluative situations.
However, this relationship is not perfect, but, in general, knowing an individual's trait anxiety level is usually helpful in predicting how he/she will respond in competitive, evaluative, or threatening situations.

Is trait and state anxiety related?


is any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person's well-being.


when we atre stressed, our ability to ___ is impaired


A substantial imbalance between physical/psychological demand and response capability, under conditions where failure to meet that demand has important consequences.


is a process/series of events that leads to a particular event.

stimulis or response. process

Stress is not merely a ___ or a ____. It is a ___ by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges.

think/ perceive

how stress effects us depends on how we ___, if we ____ we are in control

social support

____ can also help when dealing with stress

environmental stress

The demand placed upon the individual, psychological and/or physical.

perception of demand

The individual's perception of this physical/psychological demand.

stress response

The individual's psychological/physical response to a perception of the situation.

behavioral consequences

The actual behavior of the individual under stress and the outcome of that behavior (i.e., success versus failure).

uncertainty & event importance

name 2 situational sources of stress


most common anxiety disorders are __


Disruptive fear of a particular object or situation
Fear out of proportion to actual threat
Awareness that fear is excessive
Must be severe enough to cause distress or interfere with job or social life

specific & social

2 types of phobia

specific phobia

Unwarranted, excessive fear of specific object or situation
Snakes, blood, flying, spiders, etc

social phobia

Persistent, intense fear of social situations
Fear of negative evaluation or scrutiny

panic attack

Sudden, intense episode of apprehension, terror, feelings of impending doom

panic disorder

Frequent panic attacks unrelated to specific situations

Recurrent unexpected panic attacks At least one of the attacks has been followed by at least 1 month of one or more of the following

Persistent concern about having additional panic attacks
Worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences
A significant change in behavior related to the attacks
Presence or absence of agoraphobiaThe panic attacks are not due to the direct physiologic effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition

generalized anxiety disorder

Involves chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry
Lasts at least 6 months
Interferes with daily life

obsessive compulsive disorder

Intrusive, persistent, and uncontrollable thoughts or urges
Experienced as irrational


Impulse to repeat certain behaviors or mental acts to avoid distress


Develops either before age 10 or during late adolescence/early adulthood

post traumatic stress disorder

Extreme response to severe stressor
Anxiety, avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma, emotional numbing
Exposure to a traumatic event that involves actual or threatened death or injury

Re-experiencing the traumatic event
Nightmares, intrusive thoughts, or images
Avoidance of stimuli
e.g., Refuse to walk on street where rape occurred
Decreased interest in others
Distant or estranged from others
Unable to experience positive emotions
Increased arousal
Insomnia, irritability, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response

3 categories of symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder

acute stress disorder

As many as 90% of rape victims experience

duration varies

what is the difference between acute stress disorder & post traumatic stress disorder


¾ of those with anxiety disorder meet criteria for another disorder


____ are 2x as likely as men to have anxiety disorder except for OCD

Women may be more likely to report symptoms
Women more likely to experience childhood sexual abuse
Women show more biological stress reactivity

why are women more likely to have anxiety disorders

genetics, negative life events, personality tendencies such as negativity

Name some risk factors


psychological experiences emphasize

cognitive behavoral therapy

Increase patient's awareness of thoughts that make physical sensations threatening
Patient learns to challenge and change maladaptive beliefs

1. Benzodiazepenes
2. anti depressants

Drugs that reduce anxiety

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