Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
Antibiotics are derived from all the following except
Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include
All of the choices are correct.; readily delivered to the site of infection.; high toxicity against microbial cells.; do not cause serious side effects in humans.; remains active in body tissues and fluids.
Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause
Penicillins and cephalosporins
block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have
E. All of the choices are correct.; a beta-lactam ring.;resistance to the action of penicillinase. ; a semisynthetic nature.; an expanded spectrum of activity.
A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is
D. clavulanic acid.
All of the following pertain to cephalosporins except
E. they are synthetic drugs.
Which antimicrobic does not inhibit cell wall synthesis?
Gram negative rods are often treated with
This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis
Which antimicrobic does not interfere with protein synthesis?
Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus?
All of the following pertain to fluoroquinolones except
C. are nephrotoxic.
Antimicrobics that are macrolides
C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin
The drug that can cause aplastic anemic, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is
The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic-associated colitis is
A. chloramphenicol. B. clindamycin. C. ciprofloxacin. D. bacitracin. E. gentamicin.
The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is
C. amphotericin B.
The drug used for several protozoan infections is
Mebendazole, niclosamide, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat _____ infections.
A. bacterial B. fungal C. protozoan D. helminthic E. virus
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat _____ infections.
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms
C. are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.
Which of the following is not a mode of action of an anti-viral?
E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that
B. blocks DNA replication.
Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat
Acyclovir is used to treat
C. shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes.
The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include
E. All of the choices are correct.; bacterial chromosomal mutations.; synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure. ; prevention of drug entry into the cell. ; alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
The multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause
C. prevention of drug entry into the cell.
Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following except
A. development of resistance to the drug.
A superinfection results from
D. decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.
Drug susceptibility testing
B. determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.
A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, and then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient's isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up?
A ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans versus the minimum effective dose for that pathogen is assessed to predict the potential for toxic drug reactions. This is called the
E. therapeutic index (TI).
Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed
B. narrow-spectrum drugs.
A "shotgun" approach to antimicrobial therapy involves
D. using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater.
Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe an antimicrobial?
E. All of the choices are correct.; patient age ; pregnancy ; liver function ; alcohol use
All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails except
D. a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic.
All of the following are correct about allergic reactions to drugs except
E. allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.
Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs?
Which of the following antimicrobials is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration?
Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds?
D. Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem.
Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT?
A. It is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis.
All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza except
B. they prevent assembly and release of the virus.
Which bacteria does Levaquin target?
A. Streptococcus pneumoniae B. Haemophilus influenzae C. Moraxella catarrhalis D. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus E. All of the choices are correct
What does Vancomycin target?
D. Both A & B are correct choices; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ; Clostridium difficile
When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a superinfection. True False
52. A semisynthetic antibiotic is a drug which is chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from natural sources. True False
53. Species of Bacillus produce bacitracin and the polymyxins. True False
54. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat viral respiratory infections. True False
55. Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during transformation, transduction, and conjugation. True False
56. The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe. True False
57. Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys. True False
58. The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface. True False
59. An antimicrobic with a low therapeutic index is a safer choice compared to a drug with a high therapeutic index. True False
60. Levaquin, a fluoroquinolone kills viruses. True False