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Thousands of pustules (little pimples full of pus) cover the skin, which turns into scars later on, assuming the victim survived. 30% fatality rate.
Resistant to disease. At the end of the ninth century, people discovered that smallpox survivors, though badly scarred, were immune for the rest of their lives.
Milder version of smallpox. In the late 18th century, milkmaids caught this from the cows they milked.
Substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
Diseases that constantly mutate to foil antibody detection. They mutate so vaccines wouldn't work against them.
Heats food long enough to kill all the bacteria in it, but cools it in time to preserve its flavor.
Bacillus Thuringiensis. Natural pesticide. Forms poisonous crystals that slice up the guts of insects from within, making it impossible for them to digest. They starve to death.
Genetically modified rice that produces edible beta-carotene, which the body can turn into vitamin A
Biofortified food meant to treat severe malnourishment. Composed of peanut paste, vegetable oil, powdered milk, powdered sugar, and vitamins and minerals. Expensive.
Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR)
Short pieces of noncoding DNA that repeat many times in a given genome and are very different between individuals who aren't related. Ideal for DNA profiling
Fused fraternal twin: person who originally had a twin in the womb, but absorbed him/her. Has a mosaic of genetic material
bases (nitrogenous bases)
another name for nucleotides; e.g. adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine
nucleotides that are complimentary / pair up with each other (e.g. adenine with thymine, cytosine with guanine)
large molecules made of amino acids; have many different functions that are determined by DNA
the process in which the sequence on DNA is copied onto mRNA to be carried to the ribosome
the process in which mRNA determines which amino acids the ribosome should assemble (and therefore resulting in a certain protein)
the version of the trait that is expressed whenever it is present; it masks recessive alleles
version of the trait that is only expressed if there are no dominant alleles of the same gene present
recombinant DNA technology
combining one strand of DNA with another in order to transfer genes from one organism to another
virus that is capable of injecting its own DNA into host cells; they use host cells to reproduce themselves
raising ethical red flags
provoking disagreement and anger towards the ethics of a certain possible solution or experiment
protection of a certain product from unauthorized copying; the company Genentech got this for their bacteria that produced insulin
A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
Limits the body's natural immune system. Organ recipients must take these drugs for the rest of their lives. However, this limits the body's ability to fight actual infections
Ventricular assist device
Helps keep the patient's heart pumping, sometimes through electrical stimulation
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
A drug that keeps more serotonin in the brain, used to make depression patients feel better (i.e. Prozac)
drug that keeps people alert and awake, might even be used to combat depression
Ritalin and Adderall
closely related to cocaine, used to combat ADHD. Increase amounts of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
Norepinephrine and dopamine
Plays a role in cognition, mood, emotions. More of these in the brain gives patients better attention spans, more energy, and even a sense of happiness.
Cells that are able to become any type of cell in the body. They also have the ability to renew themselves.
undifferentiated cells within a group, remain inactive until needed to repair or replace damaged cells.
In vitro fertilization
Multiple eggs are extracted and fertilized outside the body. The develop into 6-8 cell embryos before doctors implant them into a woman's uterus.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Screening embryos to assess the risk of certain genetic disorders and the presence of certain traits before deciding which ones to use
"markers" on cells that determine whether the immune system should produce antibodies against them
a barrier in the brain that narcotics such as cocaine must pass in order for the person to become high
Virus-associated proteins (VAPs)
drugs that interfere with viruses by mimic proteins and bind to receptors or mimic the receptors and bind to the protein
Body's natural defense against viruses. They travel from infected cells to other cells and produce proteins that will inhibit the growth of the virus
physical differences in the expression of genes despite the same genetic code (i.e. environment in a mother's womb, presence of antibodies in breast milk, hazards of everyday living)
rolled-up sheets of individual carbon atom that are hundreds of times stronger than steel, and six times lighter
a type of insecticide made from powdered chrysanthemum flowers, discovered by Chinese farmers
gum-like material that are patched over damaged portions of the heart to conduct electrical signals to new grown heart tissues
viruses that integrates with DNA and turns dominate, later its turns lytic when triggered and spreads
a major signaling molecule for a neural receptor in the brain that erases the memory of something when subject remember it
a disease that causes brains of children to decay, currently is inheritable and has no cure
herbicide that competes with and inhibits a key enzyme in plants, making them not able to make proteins
a disease of the mind that affects mostly older people, where they steadily lose their memory and their thinking ability
a substance that surrounds neurons in people's brains; it degenerates when a person inflict Alzheimer's
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