150 terms

MAK WSC 2012 Science Guide Terms

Field regarding the ethics of biotechnology
Fungus that causes bread to rise
Lancing the Boil
Slice boils open with something sharp to "treat it".
Thousands of pustules (little pimples full of pus) cover the skin, which turns into scars later on, assuming the victim survived. 30% fatality rate.
Resistant to disease. At the end of the ninth century, people discovered that smallpox survivors, though badly scarred, were immune for the rest of their lives.
Exposing someone to a weakened version of a disease so they might be immune.
Milder version of smallpox. In the late 18th century, milkmaids caught this from the cows they milked.
Edward Jenner
Invented the vaccine for smallpox
Substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
Nonstable pathogens
Diseases that constantly mutate to foil antibody detection. They mutate so vaccines wouldn't work against them.
Heats food long enough to kill all the bacteria in it, but cools it in time to preserve its flavor.
First antibiotic, discovered by Alexander Fleming on accident
Making useful products out of raw organic materials
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Genetic material found in all known living organisms
Biological Warfare
The use of bacteria or viruses or toxins to destroy men and animals or food
Green Revolution
New ways of food production to ensure everyone has enough to eat
A large fermentation tank for growing microorganisms.
Foreign gene that is transferred into target cell or tissue
Crossing (Breeding) with another plant
Bacillus Thuringiensis. Natural pesticide. Forms poisonous crystals that slice up the guts of insects from within, making it impossible for them to digest. They starve to death.
Engineering simple and inexpensive foods to make them more nutritious
Staple food
A food item that is commonly found in an area and eaten on a regular basis
Golden Rice
Genetically modified rice that produces edible beta-carotene, which the body can turn into vitamin A
Biofortified food meant to treat severe malnourishment. Composed of peanut paste, vegetable oil, powdered milk, powdered sugar, and vitamins and minerals. Expensive.
Forensic biotechnology
Biotech used in the analyses of crimes
Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR)
Short pieces of noncoding DNA that repeat many times in a given genome and are very different between individuals who aren't related. Ideal for DNA profiling
Human chimera
Fused fraternal twin: person who originally had a twin in the womb, but absorbed him/her. Has a mosaic of genetic material
terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare
Causes skin blisters and life-threatening pneumonia. Survives for long periods as spores
Cells that lie dormant until the right conditions arise
Incubation Period
The time a diseases lives in its host before attacking
Global Pandemic
Disease that spread all over the world
Collecting health data and analyzing it for any deviations from the norm
nucleic acids
molecules that store information for cells, e.g. DNA and RNA
monomer form of nucleic acids
bases (nitrogenous bases)
another name for nucleotides; e.g. adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine
base pairs
nucleotides that are complimentary / pair up with each other (e.g. adenine with thymine, cytosine with guanine)
long segments of DNA that control how a certain trait is expressed in an organism
long chains of DNA coiled up; they contain many genes
large molecules made of amino acids; have many different functions that are determined by DNA
organelles in cells where proteins are made
the process in which the sequence on DNA is copied onto mRNA to be carried to the ribosome
the process in which mRNA determines which amino acids the ribosome should assemble (and therefore resulting in a certain protein)
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
genes on DNA that actually code for proteins
long sequences on DNA that don't code for anything
different variations of a certian gene (e.g. blue eyes vs. brown eyes)
dominant allele
the version of the trait that is expressed whenever it is present; it masks recessive alleles
recessive allele
version of the trait that is only expressed if there are no dominant alleles of the same gene present
having 2 of the same allele, e.g. 2 dominant, 2 recessive
having 2 different alleles
prefix that means "same"
unplanned changes in genes
mutagenic factors
factors that cause mutation, e.g. radiation,
recombinant DNA technology
combining one strand of DNA with another in order to transfer genes from one organism to another
the transfer of recombinant DNA from one organism to another
gene gun
device that injects new DNA into the nucleus
proteins that catalyze (speed up or activate) chemical reactions
restriction endonucleases
enzymes that select and cut DNA strands
enzyme that re-connects the 2 DNA strands
recombinant cells
cells that have had recombinant DNA introduced to them
virus that is capable of injecting its own DNA into host cells; they use host cells to reproduce themselves
the process of a virus transferring DNA form one cell to another
insertional mutation
when DNA is inserted into the wrong place
Type 1 Diabetes
a disease that prevents people form producing enough insulin
hormone that controls and regulates sugar levels
pancreatic glands
glands where insulin is made
raising ethical red flags
provoking disagreement and anger towards the ethics of a certain possible solution or experiment
patent protection
protection of a certain product from unauthorized copying; the company Genentech got this for their bacteria that produced insulin
a genetically modified flower that can produce insulin
Hepatitis B
inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus
Yellow Fever
a disease transmitted by mosquitoes: its symptoms inclued high fever and vomiting
A disease that is native or common in a certain region
person who changed their gender
gender reassignment
gender change
Cochlear implant
A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
The immune system fights any foreign substances
Limits the body's natural immune system. Organ recipients must take these drugs for the rest of their lives. However, this limits the body's ability to fight actual infections
Ventricular assist device
Helps keep the patient's heart pumping, sometimes through electrical stimulation
a device that delivers electrical impulses to the heart to regulate the heartbeat
The loss of this protein makes elderly faces hollow
Procedure that pins back ears or shrinks and reshapes them
Carry messages between neurons
Neurotransmitter that is linked with emotion
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
A drug that keeps more serotonin in the brain, used to make depression patients feel better (i.e. Prozac)
Hormone linked with feelings of affection and loyalty
Fake drug with no effects
A disorder that induces sleepiness even when the patient feels well-rested
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Disorder- patients can't focus on one task for long
Modafinil (Provigil)
drug that keeps people alert and awake, might even be used to combat depression
Ritalin and Adderall
closely related to cocaine, used to combat ADHD. Increase amounts of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
Norepinephrine and dopamine
Plays a role in cognition, mood, emotions. More of these in the brain gives patients better attention spans, more energy, and even a sense of happiness.
Stem Cells
Cells that are able to become any type of cell in the body. They also have the ability to renew themselves.
Group of cells that combine to perform a function
able to become any type of cell in the body
embryonic cells that can become any tissue in the body
undifferentiated cells within a group, remain inactive until needed to repair or replace damaged cells.
Can only become one type of cell
ability to reproduce
Fertility drugs
drugs that increase the production of egg cells
egg cells
In vitro fertilization
Multiple eggs are extracted and fertilized outside the body. The develop into 6-8 cell embryos before doctors implant them into a woman's uterus.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Screening embryos to assess the risk of certain genetic disorders and the presence of certain traits before deciding which ones to use
clump of undifferentiated cells that salamanders produce instead of scabs
"markers" on cells that determine whether the immune system should produce antibodies against them
Blood-brain barrier
a barrier in the brain that narcotics such as cocaine must pass in order for the person to become high
Virus-associated proteins (VAPs)
drugs that interfere with viruses by mimic proteins and bind to receptors or mimic the receptors and bind to the protein
virus-like genetic material that confuses real viruses
Body's natural defense against viruses. They travel from infected cells to other cells and produce proteins that will inhibit the growth of the virus
Protein that binds to special receptors on muscle cells and inhibits muscle growth
Protein that binds to myostatin, stopping it from acting. Promotes muscle growth
Epigenetic changes
physical differences in the expression of genes despite the same genetic code (i.e. environment in a mother's womb, presence of antibodies in breast milk, hazards of everyday living)
Ultimate stem cell, capable of forming all the other cells in a fetus
Sit at the end of DNA to protect them from falling apart. Shrinks as the organism ages.
Enzyme that lengthens telomeres and keeps cells from dying. Produced by cancerous cells.
Directed Chimerism
Mix human and animal genes together
Genetically engineered foods
something that causes a disease, such as a bacterium or virus
Foods that claims to improve your health
extremely small wires that can be used to build tiny circuits.
Carbon nanotubes
rolled-up sheets of individual carbon atom that are hundreds of times stronger than steel, and six times lighter
white blood cells
blood cells which patrol the body to help stop infections
a type of insecticide made from powdered chrysanthemum flowers, discovered by Chinese farmers
gum-like material that are patched over damaged portions of the heart to conduct electrical signals to new grown heart tissues
Lytic viruses
viruses that bursts a cell after duplicating itself several times and spreads.
Lysogenic viruses
viruses that integrates with DNA and turns dominate, later its turns lytic when triggered and spreads
transplanting organs from other species (e.g. pig heart valves in older humans)
Orexin A
a hormone that excites neurons; Most narcoleptic patients don't produce enough of this
determining sex early in a pregnancy
ending unwanted pregnancies
Prosthetic limb
artificial limb
Magic Bullet
a type of therapy that only kills cancer cells and nothing else
aldehyde dehydrogenase
enzymes that helps breaking down alcohol
a major signaling molecule for a neural receptor in the brain that erases the memory of something when subject remember it
Muscular dystrophy
a disease that shrinks muscles
Tay-Sachs disease
a disease that causes brains of children to decay, currently is inheritable and has no cure
Human Growth Hormone
growth regulating hormone/steroid
drugs that speed up body/brain response time
allow athletes to continue performing and not feel pain. (i.e. Oxycontin)
unwanted plants that grow among plants that are wanted
herbicide that competes with and inhibits a key enzyme in plants, making them not able to make proteins
an area for non-resistant pests
AquaAdvantage Salmon
salmon modified with a gene that makes it grow twice as fast
nanoscale robots
carbon nanotube circuit
nanobots capable of behaving like a synapse in the human brain
receptor proteins
Proteins on brain cells that help controls brain activities
a disease of the mind that affects mostly older people, where they steadily lose their memory and their thinking ability
myelin sheaths
a substance that surrounds neurons in people's brains; it degenerates when a person inflict Alzheimer's
a biofilm that forms in people's teeth that appears in the brains of people inflicted with Alzheimer's