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Ruminant Med + Sx
Terms in this set (21)
What are some characteristics of phosphorus in ruminants?
-Essential for metabolic function
-Important component of bones, teeth, milk, saliva
-Deficiency usually primary and results in multi-organ system dysfunction and eventually progressive demineralization of bone
-Salivary glands important for P homeostasis in ruminants
What are some characteristics of hypophosphatemia in ruminants?
-Low P fairly common in ruminants grazing on poor quality pasture
-Clinical signs usually vague and consistent w/poor husbandry in general
What are the 2 distinct P deficiency syndromes?
-Rickets in growing animals
-Post parturient hemoglobinuria in dairy cattle
What are some etiological characteristics of hypophosphatemia?
-Key cellular components, esp. for energy metabolism (AMP-ADP-ATP system)
-Necessary for acid/base buffer system and maintenance of homeostasis
-Second to calcium as major mineral in bone
What are some clinical pathology characteristics of phosphorus?
-P exists in organic or inorganic forms
-Inorganic P aka phosphate, is only portion measured
-Normal: 4-8 mg/dL
-Higher in younger animals with actively metabolizing bone
-Controlled via PTH-calcitonin-Vit D axis
-Plasma P concentrations highly correlated with dietary P concentration
What is the Vit. D-PTH-Calcitonin axis?
-Regulatory system that is sensitive to blood ionized calcium levels and Ca-P balance
-When ionized Ca is low, PTH secreted from parathyroid gland
-PTH acts to increase retention of Ca from kidney tubules and increase urinary P excretion
-Vit D needed for proper P balance as well
What indicates chronic hypophosphatemia?
Plasma P between 2-4 mg/dL
Plasma P <1 mg/dL = recumbency + paresis
What does chronic hypophosphatemia cause?
-Poor performance, often subtle
-As P decreases, animal develops more clinically apparent signs
-Dull hair coat
-Stiff gait, weight loss, poor reproductive performance
-Anorexia + pica may develop
What are some characteristics of acute hypophosphatemia?
-Typically seen in cows which have had low grade hypo-P for some period of time
-Sudden increase P demand causes rapid decrease in blood concentrations
-Late gestation, particularly if cow is carrying twins, lactation
What clinical signs are associated with acute hypophosphatemia?
-Down, unable to rise
-Cows often fairly alert and will eat + drink
-Multiple electrolytes involved, also see low Ca, Mg, glucose
-Low calcium increases PTH production, which increases P excretion and further decrease in blood P levels
How is hypophosphatemia treated?
-IV Ca: Ca, P, Mg solutions best
-Immediate decrease in PTH allows P levels to return to normal
-If P does not correct, supplement with additional P
How can phosphorus be supplemented?
-IV sodium monophosphate
-Do not give along w/calcium salts!
-Oral sodium monophosphate
-Re-asses diet and ensure adequate P
-Applying P to fields will increase P concentrations in forage
What is rickets?
-Dietary disease due to primary deficiency of P or secondary P deficiency due to low Vit. D
-Disease of growing animals
-Failure of cartilage of growth plate to mineralize
-Result in rubbery, easily deformed bone
-In adult animals, lack of mineralization results in osteomalacia
What clinical signs are associated with rickets?
-Joint pain, reluctant to move
-Bowed and deformed bones
-Overall nutrition and management poor
-Low serum P levels +/- low Vit. D concentrations
-If less than 10 ng/ml Vit D, Vit D deficiency
How is rickets treated?
-Adequate plane of nutrition
-Adequate P levels in diet
-Animals can recover unless bone deformity extremely severe
What is post parturient hemoglobinuria?
-Sporadic disease of high producing dairy cattle characterized by intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and anemia
-Incidence very low, case fatality rate 10-50%
-Most cases occur within 4 weeks of calving
-Very, very rarely reported in other cows, sheep, goat, and buffalo
What are some characteristics of the pathogenesis of parturient hemoglobinuria?
-Diverse dietary factors involved: low P, also low Se, Cu, and energy
-Very low serum P a consistent feature
-Increased RBC fragility and inability to correct oxidative damage (heinz bodies)
What clinical signs are associated with parturient hemoglobinuria?
-Anemia; weakness, depression, anorexia, decreased milk production
-Pale mm, increased HR, increased RR
-Variable features: intense thirst, fever, dry bile stained feces
-Eventually may result in recumbency and death
What clinical pathology abnormalities are associated with parturient hemoglobinuria?
-Very low PCV
-Heinz bodies and abnormal RBC shapes
-Increased bilirubin due to intravascular hemolysis
-After initial episode, marked signs of regeneration in peripheral blood
-Low serum P: 1.5 mg/dL or lower
-Unaffected herd mates are often hypophosphatemic as well
How is parturient hemoglobinuria treated?
-IV sodium monophosphate
-Oral P supplementation
-Blood transfusion of PCV <10 or cow showing agonal signs
How is parturient hemoglobinuria prevented?
Assess diet carefully; ensure adequate amounts of Se, Cu, P in diet
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