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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Westward Expansion Vocabulary
Terms in this set (31)
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
The Star-Spangled Banner
Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack. He wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience of seeing the U.S. flag still flying above the fort in the morning, and the poem was later set to the tune of an old English song and became the national anthem.
War of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
The Shoshone Indian guide of Lewis and Clark. Her help was infinitely important. Sacagewea provided the explorers with invaluable survival techniques and advice.
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there; for our purposes, the country is the United States
The American Indian Sitting Bull (ca. 1834-1890), a Hunkpapa Sioux medicine man and chief, was the political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre and during the Sioux War of 1875-1876.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
(1830) - religious denomination Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints based on the Book of Mormon started by Joseph Smith in Ohio. Taken over by Brigham Young in 1844 and moved to Utah where they started a prosperous community to escape persecution in the Midwest.
Parcels of land set aside by the federal government for the Native Americans.
the process of moving Native Americans from lands in the east to less desirable lands in the midwest
the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state (the United States) prior to statehood
The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico for $10 million. Southerners wanted this land in order to build the southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrated the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
California Gold Rush
In 1848, gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California. News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad in 1849. These early gold-seekers, called "forty-niners," traveled to California by sailing boat and in covered wagons across the continent, often facing substantial hardships on the trip. San Francisco grew from a small settlement to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. A system of laws and a government were created, leading to the eventual admission of California as a state in 1850.
Andrew Jackson secured a commission to enter the territory in 1818 and seized two important Spanish posts. To end these battles, the Spanish signed the Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819, giving the territory to the US for $5 million in exchange for America's claims to Texas.
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory
The area of land including present day Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and parts of British Columbia. Both Britain and the US claimed the land. A treaty between the British and the US gave control of the Pacific Northwest to the US.
The nation known as the Republic of Texas was annexed via a joint resolution through Congress, supported by President-elect Polk, and approved in 1845. Land from the Republic of Texas later bacame parts of NM, CO, OK, KS, and WY.
Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican American War. The U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas.
a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
one of the first settlers in a new territory
land acquired from the United States public lands by filing a record and living on and cultivating it under the homestead law
the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope
common method of transportation to the West, in which wagons traveled in groups for safety
These were established on the frontier to sell or trade goods to the pioneers.
Lincoln replaced General George McClellan with General Ambrose Burnside.
What was the new Ku Klux Klan?
Why did the Ku Klux Klan experience growth in the 1920s?
What were the effects of the Industrial Revolution?
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