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Augusta State University Dr. Cromer Spring 2012


the outermost cell layer of the primary plant body

root hairs

tiny hair-like extensions that increase the surface area of the root allowing it to absorbs more water and nutrients

root cap

thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root

apical meristem

group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots


spongy layer of ground tissue just inside the epidermis of a root

vascular cylinder

central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue-xylem and phloem


the area of a plant's stem from which the leaves grow


a segment of a stem between two nodes

apical bud

A bud at the tip of a plant stem; also called a terminal bud

lateral (axillary) bud

meristematic area on the side of a stem that gives rise to side branches


Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss


the tissue forming the outer layer of a structure in a plant


soft spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants

vascular bundle

a unit strand of the vascular system in stems and leaves of higher plants consisting essentially of xylem and phloem


especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole


the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf


the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

guard cells

The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore


The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis


in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves

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