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26 terms

epidemiology test 1

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acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
epidemiologic approach
•Multi-step Process
-Establish whether there is an associationbetween a factor or characteristic and outcome (disease)
-Make inferencesregarding the association to generate hypotheses
-Testthe hypotheses with study
-Develop or evaluate interventionstrategies
epidemiologic transition
The shift from high death rates to low death rates in a population as a result of modern medical and sanitary developments.
morbidity
the relative incidence of a particular disease
mortality
death rate
natural experiment
An experiment in which the researcher does not control the situation
persisting disorder
a type of illness or disease that remains common because an effective method of prevention or cure has not yet been discovered.
point epidemic
occurs when a group of people is exposed to a single common source of infection at a single place and time. There is no significant transmission between individuals. cf. continuous and intermittent epidemics.
primary prevention
Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse
protective factor
characteristics, environmental factors, or behaviors that PROMOTE a persons health, safety, and well being
quantification
used to represent the large quantities of material recovered in excavations and surveys
residual disorder
an illness or disease for which the key contributing factors are known but specific methods of control have not been effectively implemented.
risk factor
anything that increases the chance of disease or injury
secondary prevention
activities designed for early diagnosis and treatment of disease or illness
secular time trends
gradual changes in disease frequency over long time periods.
selective factor
a circumstance that results in the choice of persons for a group because of their health status or other characteristic.
social determinants
Aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support.
case definition
Set of standard criteria for deciding whether or not a person has a certain disease
epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
endemic
native to or confined to a certain region
quarantine
forced isolation to prevent the spread of disease
epidemic threshold
The minimum number of cases that would support the conclusion that an epidemic was coming.
surveillance
close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)
secular trend
A change in the characteristics of a population over time.
operations research
research designed to determine most efficient way to do something