the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
•Multi-step Process -Establish whether there is an associationbetween a factor or characteristic and outcome (disease) -Make inferencesregarding the association to generate hypotheses -Testthe hypotheses with study -Develop or evaluate interventionstrategies
The shift from high death rates to low death rates in a population as a result of modern medical and sanitary developments.
the relative incidence of a particular disease
An experiment in which the researcher does not control the situation
a type of illness or disease that remains common because an effective method of prevention or cure has not yet been discovered.
occurs when a group of people is exposed to a single common source of infection at a single place and time. There is no significant transmission between individuals. cf. continuous and intermittent epidemics.
Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse
characteristics, environmental factors, or behaviors that PROMOTE a persons health, safety, and well being
used to represent the large quantities of material recovered in excavations and surveys
an illness or disease for which the key contributing factors are known but specific methods of control have not been effectively implemented.
anything that increases the chance of disease or injury
activities designed for early diagnosis and treatment of disease or illness
secular time trends
gradual changes in disease frequency over long time periods.
a circumstance that results in the choice of persons for a group because of their health status or other characteristic.
Aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support.
Set of standard criteria for deciding whether or not a person has a certain disease
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
native to or confined to a certain region
forced isolation to prevent the spread of disease
The minimum number of cases that would support the conclusion that an epidemic was coming.
close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)
A change in the characteristics of a population over time.
research designed to determine most efficient way to do something