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the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture

epidemiologic approach

•Multi-step Process
-Establish whether there is an associationbetween a factor or characteristic and outcome (disease)
-Make inferencesregarding the association to generate hypotheses
-Testthe hypotheses with study
-Develop or evaluate interventionstrategies

epidemiologic transition

The shift from high death rates to low death rates in a population as a result of modern medical and sanitary developments.


the relative incidence of a particular disease


death rate

natural experiment

An experiment in which the researcher does not control the situation

persisting disorder

a type of illness or disease that remains common because an effective method of prevention or cure has not yet been discovered.

point epidemic

occurs when a group of people is exposed to a single common source of infection at a single place and time. There is no significant transmission between individuals. cf. continuous and intermittent epidemics.

primary prevention

Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse

protective factor

characteristics, environmental factors, or behaviors that PROMOTE a persons health, safety, and well being


used to represent the large quantities of material recovered in excavations and surveys

residual disorder

an illness or disease for which the key contributing factors are known but specific methods of control have not been effectively implemented.

risk factor

anything that increases the chance of disease or injury

secondary prevention

activities designed for early diagnosis and treatment of disease or illness

secular time trends

gradual changes in disease frequency over long time periods.

selective factor

a circumstance that results in the choice of persons for a group because of their health status or other characteristic.

social determinants

Aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support.

case definition

Set of standard criteria for deciding whether or not a person has a certain disease


a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease


an epidemic that is geographically widespread


native to or confined to a certain region


forced isolation to prevent the spread of disease

epidemic threshold

The minimum number of cases that would support the conclusion that an epidemic was coming.


close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)

secular trend

A change in the characteristics of a population over time.

operations research

research designed to determine most efficient way to do something

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