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Congess of Vienna

a series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon

Klemens von Metternich

the foreign minister of Austria who was the most influential leader during the congress of Vienna

Balance of power

a political situation in which on one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others


the hereditary right of a monarch to rule

Holy Alliance

a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna

Concert of Europe

a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century devised by Prince Klemens con Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions


in the first half of the 19th century, a European- usually a wealthy landowner of noble- who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe


in the 1st half of the 19th century, a European- usually a middle class business leader or merchant- who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments


in the first half of the 19th century, a European who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people


the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation- that is, to the people who whom they share a culture and history- rather than to a king or empire


an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity

the Balkans

region that included part of Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, TUrkey, and the former Yugoslavia


Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew who won the presidential election in France but later took the title of Emperor Napoleon III

Alexander II

Czar Nicholas I's son who decided to move Russia towards modernization and social change


the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire

Camilo di Cavour

Italy's first prime minister who came to governing in 1852 alongside king Victor Emmanuel II

Giuseppe Garibaldi

a bold and visionary soldier who led a small army of Italian nationalists to battle in 1860 and captured Sicily


strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class

Otto von Bismarck

A conservative Junker who was prime minister of Germany in 1862


"the politics of reality"- the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism


a German emperor (from the Roman title Caesar)

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