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honors english 10, violette, 2nd semester dgp final,

reflexive pronoun

(reflect back to "self") myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

relative pronoun

(start dependent clauses) that, which, whom, who, whose

interrogative pronoun

(ask a question) which? whose? what? whom? who?

demonstrative prnouns

(demonstrate which one) this, that, these, those

indefinite pronoun

(don't refer to a definite person or thing) each, either, neither, few, some, all, most, another, much, more, anybody, somebody, none

helping verbs

(helps an action verb or linking verb-if 3 verbs, first 2 are helping) is, be, am, are, was, had, do, does, did

linking verbs

(links two words together) is, be, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, [english is fun, english=fun]


happening now


happened previously


will happen

present perfect

have or has plust past participle (have jumped, has talked, have been eating, has been falling)

past perfect

had plust the past participle (had jumped, had talked, had been eating)

future perfect

will have or shall have plus past participle (will have jumped, shall have talked, will have been eating)


verb acting like a noun, (ends in -ing)


verb acting like an adjective (ends in -ing or -ed)


to + verb, can act like a noun (i like to eat), an adjective (It's the best place to eat), or adverb (i need a pen to write a letter)


how, when, where? modifies adjectives (really cute), verbs(extremely fast), and other adverbs (very easily)


modifies nouns and pronouns, which one? how many? what kind?


a, the, an


shows relationship between noun/pronoun and other word (at, before, below, by, during, etc.)

coordinating conjunction

connects words, phrases, and clauses-FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

subordinating conjunctions

starts dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb) after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when

correlative conjunctions

connects words, phrases, and clauses (not only/but also, neither/nor, either/or, both/and)

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