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# Lesson 3 - Currents and Climates

Water and Atmosphere - Chapter 2
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Current
a large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans.
Coriolis Effect
the effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of the winds and currents
Climate
the average annual conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area
El Nino
an abnormal climate event that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean, causing changes in winds, currents, and weather patterns for one to two years
La Nina
a climate event in th eastern Pacific Ocean in which surface wtaters are cooler than normal
How are currents different than waves?
ocean water is moved great distances by currents but not by waves
What causes surface currents?
wind
What causes surface currents to curve clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern hemisphere?
the Coriolis Effect
What causes deep currents?
differences in density of ocean water
How does the temperature of ocean water affect its density?
colder water is more dense
How does the salinity of ocean water affect its density?
the higher the salinity, the greater the density
How do surface currents affect climate?
by moving warm or cold water around the globe, warming or cooling the air above
How do deep currents affect the oceans?
deep water currents move and mix water around the world. They carry cold water from the poles toward the equator
What is caused by differences in ocean water density?
deep currents
What is the gulf stream?
surface current originating by the Gulf of Mexico and then moving across the atlantic ocean
In the northern hemisphere, the Coriolis effect causes currents to ___.
curve clockwise
In the southern hemisphere,the Coriolis effect causes currents to ___.
curve counter clockwise
Unlike waves, currents ___ water from one place to another.
move
Earth's rotation causes the ____.
Coriolis effect
The Gulf Stream ___ nearyby land areas.
warms
The thermohaline circulation is a pattern of ocean currents driven by ___ differences
density
A surface current effects the ___ of nearby land.
climate
___ currents affect water down to a depth of several meters
surface
____ is a climate event that occurs when surface waters in the eastern Pacific are colder than normal.
La Nina
___ is an abnormal climate event that occurs every 2 to 7 years in the Pacific Ocean
El Nino
___ are large streams of moving water that flow through the oceans
currents
___ is the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time
climate