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Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
*Culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects tht are passed from one generation to the next
*Material culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry
*Nonmaterial culture
(also called symbolic culture) a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
*Culture shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumption about life
*Ethnocentrism
the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors
*Cultural reletivism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
*Symbolic culture
another term for nonmaterial culture
Symbol
something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
*Gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with another
*Language
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.
*Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
*Values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
*Norms
Expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce values
*Sanctions
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Importance of Language
The principle means by culture is transmitted from generation to generation.
*Dominant Culture
The group whose values, norms, traditions, and outlooks are imposed on the society as a whole
*Folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
*Mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group
*Taboo
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
*Subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
*Counterculture
a group whose values, beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
*Ideal culture
the ideal values and norms of people; the goals held out for them
*Real culture
the norms and values that people actually follow
*Cultural universal
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group