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the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects tht are passed from one generation to the next

*Material culture

the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

*Nonmaterial culture

(also called symbolic culture) a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)

*Culture shock

the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumption about life


the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors

*Cultural reletivism

not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms

*Symbolic culture

another term for nonmaterial culture


something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others


the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with another


a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.

*Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

language creates ways of thinking and perceiving


the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly


Expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce values


expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms

Importance of Language

The principle means by culture is transmitted from generation to generation.

*Dominant Culture

The group whose values, norms, traditions, and outlooks are imposed on the society as a whole


norms that are not strictly enforced


norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group


a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated


the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world


a group whose values, beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture

*Ideal culture

the ideal values and norms of people; the goals held out for them

*Real culture

the norms and values that people actually follow

*Cultural universal

a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group

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