Operations Management Ch. 7 and 7s
Terms and definitions of this chapter that could be on the exam.
Terms in this set (54)
Physical factors such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, and noise can have a significant impact on workers performance in terms of productivity, quality of output, and accidents. Government Regulation applies.
Temperature & Humidity
Can have an adverse effect on on work and performance outside the comfort band. Strenous work and comfort band have an inverse relationship.
Can be come unpleasant, dangerous, stale or annoying.
Detailed work and illumination are positively related. Illumination is expensive.
Noise and Vibrations
Unwanted sound. Can lead to errors and accidents.
Work Time and Work Break
Reasonable and sometimes flexible work hours can e good for production and in creating a sense of freedom. Work breaks are necessary so tha boredom and fatigue are reduced. Also work breaks reduce the risk of lower quality and productivity.
Occupational Health Care
Good worker health care contributes to productivity, minimizes health care cost, and enhances workers sense of well being.
One of the most basic issues in job design. The two basic causes of accidents is worker carelessness and accident hazards.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administraion)
Emphasizes the importance of safety considerations in system design. Ensures that all workers in all organizations have healthy and safe working conditions. Investigations are both random and for complaints.
Affect operations through work methods, working conditions and employee safety, accurate record keeping, unbiased performance appraisals, fair compensation, and opportunites for advancement.
Compensation based on time an employee has worked during the pay period. Includes salaried wokers.
Incentive Based System
Compensation based on amount o output an employee produces during a period.
Time Based System Advantages
Stable pay and labor cost
Easy to administer and less pressure to produce
Simple to compute pay
Incentive Based System Advantages
Lower cost per unit and pay related to efforts
Greater output and opportunity to earn more
Time Based System Disdvantages
No incentitive for workes to increas output
Extra Efforts not rewarded
Incentive Based System Disdvantages
Wage computation more difficult and pay fluctuates
Need to measure output
Workers may be penalized for factors beyon their control
Difficult to incorporate wage increases
Quality may suffer
Increased problem with scheduling
Worker's pay is the direct linear function of his or her output.
Fairly popular. Impractical due to minimum wage legislation. (individual incentive plan
Focused on team and not individual performance. Used for problem solving and continious impovement.
Pay tied to an employee's acquisition of knowledge or skills; also called competency-based pay or skill-based pay
The process of putting together various elements to form a job, bearing in mind organizational and individual worker requirements.
Elements of a Job Design
Productivity, safety, and quality of work life.
Systematic, logical approach to job design
-Frederick W. Taylor
Emphasizes satisfaction of needs and wants of employees
-Mary Parker Follet
Work that concentrates on some aspect of product or service. Jobs with a very narrow scope. Yeild higl productivity an low unit cost.
Low wage cost
Low education and skill requirements
Little mental effor needed
Difficult to motivate quality
Limited opportunites for advancement
Little control over work
Little opportunity for self-fulfillment
Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task, by horizontal loading. More ineresting, increasing the variety of skill, and making worker output more noticeable.
Workers periodically changing jobs.
Increasing responsibillity for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading.
Additional work on the same level of skill and responsibility as the oiginal job.
Encouages workers to respond in a positive manner to the goals of the organization.
Influences motivation, productivity, and employee-management relationships.
Groups of employees empowered to make decisions and supervise themselves.
(Robert Bacal Requirements of) Succesful Team Building
Clearly stated and commonly held visions and goals
Talent and skills required to meet goals
Clear understanding of team members' roles and functions
Efficent and shared understanding of procedures and norms
Effective and skilled interpersonal relations
A system of reinforcement and celebration
Clear understanding of team's relationship to the greater organization
Incorporation of human factors in the design of the wokplace
(The International Association of Eronomoics) IAE
Organizes Ergonomics into three domains: Physical, cogniive, and organizational.
Analyzing how a job is done. Good source o productivity improvement.
(Selecting an) Operation to Study
Have a high labor content
Are done frequently
Are unsafe, tiring, unpleasant, and/or noisy
Are designated as problems
Flow Process Chart
Chart used to examine the overall sequence of operation by focusing on movements of the operator or flow of materials.
Chart used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle.
Order of Method Analysis
Identify the operation
Discuss job with supervisior
Document Current Method
Analyze the job
Propose new methods
Install the new method
Systematic Study of the human motions used to perform an operation.
Motion Study Principles
Guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures. Divided into three principles:
Use of the body
Arrangement of work place
Design of tools and equipment
motion studies; number of physical motions to do a task, saw that if you cut out motions task can been done faster
Basic elemental motions that make up a job
Use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze.
The length of time it takes to do a job
The amount of time it should take a qualified worker to complete a specified taask, working at a sustainable rate, using given methods, tools and equipment, raw materials, and workplace arrangement.
Stopwatch Time Study
Development of a time standard based on observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles.
(Basic )Steps in Time Study
define the task, inform the worker
define the number of cycles
time the job, rate he workers performance
compare the standard time
Standard elemental times
Times standard derived from a firms historical data
Predetermined time standards
Published data based on extensive research to determine standard elemental time
Technique for estimating the proportion of time that a worker or machine spends on various activites and idle time.