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23-1 Albrecht Durer, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504. Engraving, 9'' X 7''

-durer was the first northern european artist to become an international celebrity
-fall of man, with two figures based on ancient statues, reflects his studies of the vitruvian theory of human proportions


23-2 Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece from the chapel of the Hospital of Saint Anthony, Isenheim, Germany, ca. 1510-1515. Oil on wood, 9' X 10' (center panel) painted and gilt lime wood

- befitting its setting in a monastic hospital, this altarpiece includes painted panels depicting suffering and disease but also miraculous healing, hope and salvation


23-3 Hans Baldung Grien, Witches' Sabbath, 1510. Chiaroscuro woodcut. 1'2'' X 10'.

-this chiaroscuro woodcut depicts witches gathered around a secret potion
-one witch on a goat flies through the night sky mounted backward-suggesting witchcraft is the inversion of christianity


23-4 Albrecht Durer, Great piece of turf, 1503. Watercolor, 1'3'' X 1'

-durer, who visited italy twice, shared leonardo da vinci's belief that sight reveals scientific truth
-botanists have been able to identify each plant and grass variety in this watercolor


23-5 Albrecht Durer, Knight, Death, and the Devil, 1513. Engraving, 9'' X 7''

-durer's christian knight, armed with his faith, rides fearlessly through a meticulously rendered landscape, challenging both Death and the Devil
-the engraving rivals the tonal range of painting


23-6 Albrecht Durer, Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on wood, each panel 7' X 2'.

-durer's support for lutheranism surfaces in his portrait like depictions of four saints on two painted panels
-peter, representative of the pope in rome, plays a secondary role behind john the evangelist


23-7 Lucas Cranach the elder, allegory of law and grace, ca. 1530. Woodcut, 10' X 2'

-cranach was a close friend of martin luther, whose 95 theses launched the reformation in 1517
-in this woodcut cranach contrasted catholic and protestant views of how to achieve salvation


23-8 Albrecht Altdorfer, Battle of Issus, 1529. Oil on wood, 5' X 3'.

-interweaving history and 16th century politics, altdorfer painted alexander the great's defeat of the persians for a patron who had just embarked on a military campaign against the Turks


23-9 Hans Holbein the younger, The French Ambassadors, 1533. Oil and tempera on wood, 6' X 6'.

-in this double portrait, holbein depicted two humanists with a collection of objects reflective of their worldliness and learning, but he also included an anamorphic skull, a reminder of death


23-10 Jean Clouet, Francis I, ca. 1525-1530. Tempera and oil on wood, 3' X 2'.

-clouet's portrait of francis I in elegant garb reveals the artist's attention to detail but also the flattening of features and disproportion between head and body, giving the painting a formalized quality


23-13 Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505-1510. Oil on wood, center panel 7' X 6'

-Bosch was the most imaginative and enigmatic painter of his era
-in this triptych, which may commemorate a wedding, he created a fantasy world filled with nude men and women and bizarre creatures and objects


23-14 Jan Gossaert, Neptune and Amphitrite, ca. 1516. Oil on wood, 6' X 4'.

-Durer's Fall of Man (23-1) inspired the poses of gossaert's classical deities, but the architectural setting is probably based on sketches of ancient buildings gossaert made during his trip to rome


23-15 Quinten Massys, Money Changer and His Wife, 1514. Oil on wood, 2' X 2'. Louvre, Paris.

-massys's painting depicting a secular financial transaction is also a commentary on 16th century netherlandish values.
-the banker's wife shows more interest in the money-weighing than in her prayer book


23-16 Pieter Aertsen, Butcher's Stall, 1551. Oil on wood, 4' X 6'.

-at first glance butcher's stall appears to be a genre painting, but in the background Joseph leads a donkey carrying Mary and the Christ Child.
-Aertsen balanced images of gluttony with allusions to salvation


23-17 Caterina Van Hemessen, Self Portrait, 1548. Oil on panel, 1' X 9'

-in this first known northern european self portrait by a woman, caterina van hemessen represented herself as a confident artist momentarily interruption her work to look out at the viewer


23-18 Attributed to Levina Teerling, Elizabeth I as a Princess, ca, 1559. Oil on wood, 3' X 2'

-teerlinc received greater compensation for her work for the english court than did her male contemporaries
-her considerable skill is evident in this life size portrait of elizabeth I as a young princess


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