Unit 2 Exam (EGHS WH 2015-2016)

Use these to help you study for the Unit 2 Exam (EGHS WH 2015-2016)
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Eastern half of old Roman Empire
This half of the Roman Empire did not fall in 476 AD; instead, this half flourished for 1000 more years
Byzantine Empire
After the Western Roman Empire fell in 476 AD, the eastern part of the empire eventually became known as this
Constantinople
This city was named after the emperor Constantine; it would serve as the capital of the Byzantine Empire until it fell in 1453
Justinian
This famous Byzantine regained territory from the former Roman Empire, built the Hagia Sophia, and established a unified law code
Justinian Code
The uniform law code created for the Byzantine Empire; its purpose was to regulate an increasingly complex society
Hagia Sophia
The most splendid Church in the Byzantine Empire; built by Justinian in the city of Constantinople
Great Schism
The first split in Christianity that happened in 1054; this resulted in the Roman Catholic Church in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Church in the East
Eastern Orthodox
After the Great Schism, the eastern portion of the old Roman Empire began adhering to this branch of Christianity
Istanbul
After the Islamic empire took over, the city of Constantinople became known as this
Islam
This monotheistic and Abrahamic religion was founded on the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century
Arabian Peninsula
This is where the religion of Islam originated; located on several water and land trade routes
Muhammad
This individual claimed to be the final prophet of Allah; he started the religion of Islam
Muslim
This means "one who has submitted"; a follower of the religion of Islam
Mecca
The holiest of cities for the Muslims; this city is also where every devoted Muslim is expected to make a pilgrimage once in his or her lifetime
Five Pillars
The major duties/guidelines required and followed by all Muslims
Qur'an
The Muslim Holy book; written in Arabic
Spread of Islam
Effective military leadership, religious tolerance towards non-Muslims, and the unifying force of Islam enabled this
Western half of old Roman Empire
The half of the Roman Empire that fell to Germanic invaders in 476 AD
Western Europe
This area experienced the Dark Ages following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 476 AD
Kingdoms
After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, the western side of the Roman Empire split into these
Christianity (the Church)
This provided a sense of stability, unity, and order during the Dark Ages in Europe
Roman Catholic
After the Great Schism, the western portion of the old Roman Empire began adhering to this branch of Christianity
Dark Ages
During this time period in Western Europe, there were almost no cultural and technological advancements
Feudalism
The purpose of this system was to provide protection and control in Western Europe; in this system, social classes were well-defined with serfs providing manual labor and goods
Crusades
Holy wars between the Christian forces of Europe and the Islamic forces of the Middle East over control of Jerusalem; Christian forces were NOT successful in regaining control of the Holy Land - instead, hostility between Christians and Muslims became a negative effect
Bubonic Plague
The devastating disease that hit Europe in 1347, resulting in up to 50% deaths and helped bring about the end of Feudalism; also known as the Black Death
Mongols
Nomadic people from the plains of Mongolia who conquered Europe and helped spread paper, gunpowder, printing technology to Europe; allowed conquered people to keep their religion and cultures
Genghis Khan
Leader of the Mongols who, after twenty years, conquered most of Europe creating the largest empire in history
Marco Polo
Italian who traveled to China and spent 17 years living with the Mongol ruler, Kublai Kahn; his stories inspired travel and exploration; his travels also resulted in the expansion of trade between China and Europe
Serfs
Peasants who were forced to work the land in the feudal system in Europe. They were promised protection and justice by the Vassals .
Lords
Given land by the king in the feudal system in exchange for loyalty, the lords divided the land to his supporters, known as vassals.
"People of the Book"
This was the Islamic view of Jews and Christians, who were treated with tolerance because of their common origin and beliefs.
Arabic
This was the language of Islam and help create a very efficient Islamic trade network throughout Africa and the Middle East.
Pope Urban II
The pope who called for a crusade in order to free the city of Jerusalem from control of Muslims.
Judaism
The world's first monotheistic religion
Hinduism & Buddhism
What are the two religions that originated in South Asia?
Reincarnation (Rebirth)
Both Buddhism & Hinduism believe in the concept of
Karma
Reincarnation is determined based on what concept
1) It appealed to all people
2) Roman roads encouraged its spread
3) Offered eternal life after death
What are some reasons Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire?
Labor of peasants & exchange of services like land/protection
Feudalism was a system in Europe based off of what?
Protection
What was the purpose of feudalism?
Samurai
In Japanese feudalism, what role was the equivalent of European knights?
Jerusalem
What city was fought over during the Crusades?
No but they resulted in long term hostility between Muslims & Christians that exists today!
Were the Crusades successful?