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The 2008 presidential election was important because it

demonstrated that women and African Americans can be serious contenders for the presidency.

_____ require that the government have a compelling state interest for treating people differently.

Suspect classifications

In an attempt to make the black codes unconstitutional, the _________ amendment was passed, which stated, in part, that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law, or deny any person equal protection of the law.


In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that

segregated schools were inherently unequal because the very fact of segregation made blacks feel unequal.

The tax levied as a requirement for voting was the _____ tax.


During World War II, Japanese Americans

were placed in detainment camps for national security purposes.

Jim Crow laws were significant because they

restricted rights of African Americans even after the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.

The impact of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision was to

authorize the segregation of whites and blacks

The civil rights movement of the 1950s‐1960s was most successful in eliminating ______, but was far less successful in eliminating ______.

de jure discrimination; de facto discrimination

Which of the following has the Supreme Court ruled regarding gay and lesbian rights?

Sodomy laws are unconstitutional

The legal methods used to deny African Americans the right to vote, such as literacy tests and poll taxes, were overcome by

passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Twenty‐fourth Amendment to the Constitution.

_____ discrimination arises from or is supported by law.

De jure

The 1848 Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, signified the

birth of the women's rights movement

Which of the following is NOT constitutional?

Fulfilling quotas of minorities in school admissions

Social and economic statistics tend to show that

inequality still pervades the American system.

One effect of casino gambling on reservations is that

Native Americans have achieved new financial prosperity by parlaying their status as semi‐sovereign nations.

The major impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision was that it

served as a catalyst for the civil rights movement

The Americans with Disabilities Act was controversial because

many of the required changes in physical accommodations are extremely expensive to install.

The Supreme Court ruled in 2003 that

racial profiling is unconstitutional

What is the definition of affirmative action?

A policy of creating opportunities for members of certain groups as a substantive remedy for past discrimination

During the Reconstruction period, southerners sought to

maintain power and the status quo

What is the definition of strict scrutiny?

A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that treat individuals differently based on race

The ______ Amendment gives women the right to vote.


The concepts of strict scrutiny and suspect classification are used by the Supreme Court to answer what question?

When can the law treat people differently?

While women have achieved a level of formal equality,

discrimination remains in the workplace and women are underrepresented in many areas of employment.

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