41 terms

Geography Unit 3 Study Terms

measuring lines going horizontally, but measuring from North and South of the equator (parallel to equator)
Distance east or west on the earth's surface, measured in degrees from a certain meridian (line from the North to the South Pole).
used to display the orientation of the directions: North, East, South, and West
map Key
a list of map symbols that tells what each symbol stands for
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
An imaginary circle around the middle of the earth, halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole
People, Goods or Ideas are moving constantly. Example: Farmers markets provide centers for trade (grower → buyer).
relying on one another
Area defined by common Characteristics. Example: The Syrian Desert can be defined as a dry sandy region.
Relative Location: The position of a place in relation to other places. Example: Rocklin is North East of San Francisco, East of Sacramento, and West of Reno Nevada
Absolute location
Absolute Location: The exact spot on Earth where something is found. Example: Niamey the Capital of Niger is 13° N, 2°E
Relative location
The position of a place in relation to another place
Interaction between people and their environment
People adapting to their environment or change their environment to suit their needs. Example:
Change: Bulldozing Forests to build a shopping mall
Adapt: wearing heavy cloth around your face to protect you from sun and sand in the desert.
A changing to fit new conditions
The description of a location: Every place on Earth can be described by its physical characteristics or its human features. Example: The Sahel in Africa is hot and dry, overgrazing by animals have stripped it of vegetation.
Language is the ability to communicate in written, spoken, or signed words. Communicate: Thoughts, Feelings, Knowledge.
Arts and Literature
Arts and Literature are products of human imagination that express cultural values. Music, Folk tales, painting, sculpture, murals, etc.
Religion is an expression of faith and values
Helps people answer basic questions about the meaning and purpose of life.
belief in many gods
belief in one god
Exists to provide order within society and to protect society from outside threats.
a type of government in which power rests with the people.
a state in which the power rests with elected reps that are chosen by the people
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
A ruler or group holds power by force.
Economic Systems
Market, Command, Mixed, Traditional
Market Economy
Consumers control the answer to the three economic questions
Command economy
The government controls the answer to the three economic questions
Mixed economy
Mix of consumers and government make some economic decisions. - For example, Americans decide that they want to buys cars, however the government sets standard for safety and fuel use.
Traditional economy
People produce what they need to survive through hunting, gathering, farming, and herding cattle.
Social organization
the way a culture divides itself into groups.
Nuclear family
wife, husband, and kids.
Extended family
several generations living in one house.
Stages in advancement
-1st Agricultural revolution (10,000 BCE) Farm & Domesticate animals IN Southeast Asia and Mesopotamia
-1st Civilizations Features: Structured religion, New technology (specialized jobs), Social organization, Written Language. Found:Nile, Indus, Mesopotamia, Huang He
-Cultural Diffusion - Movement of customs or ideas from one place to another that brings about cultural change.
-The Industrial Revolution (1700-1800s) Advances in farming, Urbanization, &Shift to market economy
-Age of Imperialism: Need for new materials, Need for new markets, Led nations to conquer other nations , &Strong will survive
-The modern world: Modern medicine, Information age, & National conflict
First world country
Developed, capitalist, industrial countries that aligned with the US after WWII, with common political and economic interests: North America, Western Europe, Japan and Australia.
Second world country
Former communist, industrial states. Formerly the Eastern block, (the territory of the USSR), Russia, Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland) and some of the Turk States (e.g., Kazakhstan) as well as China.
Third world country
ll the other countries, often used to describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Fourth world country
nations (ethnic groups) of indigenous peoples living within or across state boundaries.
Movement, Region, Location, Interaction between people and their environment, Place
Language, Arts & Literature, Religion, Government, Economy, Social Organization,
Study of people, places, maps, culture, conflict, and change