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An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill
Political districts which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically by less than 55 percent of the vote
The legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or the Senate
The legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or in the Senate
A senator or representative who helps the party stay informed about what party members are thinking
A vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators
An association of Congress members created to advance a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest
Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill
An expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body
An expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate, but not the president
A formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president; constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president
One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
"Hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees
A congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several important committees
A congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting
A device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for 30 days, may petition to have it brought to the floor
An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor
A roll call in either house of Congress to see whether the minimum number of representatives required to conduct business is present
A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other businesses
A congressional voting procedure in which members shout "yea" in approval or "nay" in disapproval, permitting members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills
A congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and the "nays" second
A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names
Legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
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