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Vocabulary for Chapter 20 & 21 Quiz (Magruder's American Government 2007)


Accusation by a grand jury; a formal finding by that body that there is sufficient evidence against a named person to warrant his/her criminal trial

Double Jeopardy

Trial a second time for a crime of which the accused was acquitted in the first trial; prohibited by the 5th and 14th amendments

Bench Trial

A trial held without a jury; civil or cirminal proceeding at which the judge decides questions of fact as well as questions of law

Miranda Rule

A listing of the Constitutional rights that suspects must be advised of before police questioning


Money the accused may be required to post (deposit with the court) as a guarantee that he/she will appear in court at the proper time


Betrayal of one's country; in the Constitution, by levying war against the United States or offering comfort or aid to its enemies


Separation or isolation of a racial or other group from the rest of the population in education or other areas of public or private activity

Jim Crow Law

Law to isolate and separate one group of people from another on the basis of race


Long held by the Supreme Court, that the 14th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause did not forbid racial segregation so long as the separate facilities for African Americans were equal to those provided by whites

De jure segregation

Segregation that exists as a result of some law or governmental actions

De facto segregation

Segregation that exists "in fact," not as a result of laws or governmental actions

Affirmative Action

Policy that requires that both public and private organizations take positive steps to overcome the effects of past discrimination


Rules requiring certain numbers or jobs or promotions for certain groups

Reverse discrimination

A description of affirmative action by critics of that policy; holds that giving preference to females and/or nonwhites discriminates against members of the majority group


The legal process by which a person becomes a citizen of another country

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