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Accusation by a grand jury; a formal finding by that body that there is sufficient evidence against a named person to warrant his/her criminal trial
Trial a second time for a crime of which the accused was acquitted in the first trial; prohibited by the 5th and 14th amendments
A trial held without a jury; civil or cirminal proceeding at which the judge decides questions of fact as well as questions of law
A listing of the Constitutional rights that suspects must be advised of before police questioning
Money the accused may be required to post (deposit with the court) as a guarantee that he/she will appear in court at the proper time
Betrayal of one's country; in the Constitution, by levying war against the United States or offering comfort or aid to its enemies
Separation or isolation of a racial or other group from the rest of the population in education or other areas of public or private activity
Long held by the Supreme Court, that the 14th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause did not forbid racial segregation so long as the separate facilities for African Americans were equal to those provided by whites
De facto segregation
Segregation that exists "in fact," not as a result of laws or governmental actions
Policy that requires that both public and private organizations take positive steps to overcome the effects of past discrimination
A description of affirmative action by critics of that policy; holds that giving preference to females and/or nonwhites discriminates against members of the majority group
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