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Intercalated discs have desmosomes for
strong connection, to transmit force, and to gap junctions for electrical communication btwn cells
Tetanic musc contractions dont occur in a normal cardiac muscle because
the refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes
When a bld clot forms on a ruptured plaque in a coronary artery, the condition is known as
What part of the condition system initiates the depolarizing impulse which spreads throughout the heart?
Which part of the intrinsic conduction system delays the impulse briefly before it moves on to the ventricles?
In cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of
increased membrane permeability of sodium ions
The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to
calcium channels remaining open
If the pacemaker cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions
heart rate will decrease and cells will hyperpolarize
In the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked
the ventricles will beat more slowly
describe pressures in the atria and ventricles that would cause the opening of the AV valves
pressure in atria would be greater than the pressure in ventricles
What causes the aortic semilunar valve to close
greater pressure in the aorta than in the left ventricle
Phases of cardiac cycle in order
ventricular filling, contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxtion
the one way nature of the left AV valve prevents blood flow from
the left ventricle of the left atrium
Majority of the ventricular filling occurs while the ventricles and atria are in what state?
relaxed, ventricular and atrial diastole
Decrease in left ventricular pressure at the end of ventricular systole causes
the semilunar valve to close
Which would increase cardiac output to the greatest extent?
increased heart rate and increased stroke volume
How would decrease in blood volume affect stroke volume and cardiac output?
volume and no change in cardiac output
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