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119 terms

Psych Set 5

STUDY
PLAY
Memory
system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
Encoding
task of memory, modifying information to fit preferred format, we select stimuli, we ID the sensory input, we label it, and we elaborate on it
Storage
task of memory, involves the retention of encoded material overtime
Retrieval
task of memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory
Sensory Memory
1st stage of memory, holds brief sensory impressions of stimuli, sounds, smell, texture, function is to maintain incoming info long enough to be screened for possible entry into working memory
Working Memory
(short term) 2nd stage of memory, preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute, last about 20 seconds(remembering #s) has the smallest capacity
Long-Term Memory
3rd stage of memory, receives information from working memory, has the longest duration, words, concepts are encoded by their meanings
Structures of Working Memory
1. Central Executive (directs attention) 2. Phonological Loop (stores sound) 3. Sketchpad (store/manipulates mental images)
Chunking
organizes pieces of info into a smaller number of meaningful units (frees up space in working memory)
Maintenance Rehearsal
information is repeated or reviewed to keep from fading, (involves not active elaboration)
Elaborative Rehearsal
information is not just rehearsed, but connected to knowledge already stored
Acoustic Encoding
the conversion of information to sounds patterns in working memory
Levels-of-Processing Theory
info that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long term memory
Procedural Memory
part of LTM, stores the things we know how to do
Declarative Memory
part of LTM, stores explicit info (facts and events), 2 parts
Episodic Memory
division of Declarative Memory, stores personal experiences, also stores temporal/context coding(when/where), acts ad autobiographical memory
Semantic Memory
division of Declarative Memory, stores general knowledge, meanings of words and concepts
Engram
(memory trace) physical change in the brain associated with a memory
Anterograde Amnesia
inability to form memories for new information
Consolidation
process by which short term memories are changed to long term over time
Retrograde Amnesia
inability to remember information previously stored in memory
Implicit Memory
memory that was not deliberately learned or which you had no awareness
Explicit Memory
memory that has been processed w/ attention, can be consciously recalled
Priming
technique used for cuing implicit memories, helps stimulate memories your not aware of
Recall
retrieval method, must produce previously presented information (essay question)
Recognition
retrieval method, must identify or recognize previously learned info
Mood-Congruent Memory
memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one's mood
Encoding Specificity Principle
process by which memory is encoded and stored w/ specific cues related to the context in which it was learned (recognizing something out of their usual element, stimulus that made you think of old memories)
Transience
impermanence of long term memory, based on the idea that LTM gradually fade over time
Absent-Mindedness
forgetting caused by lapses in attention
Blocking
forgetting when an item in memory cannot be accessed, caused by interference
Proactive Interference
previously stored information prevents learning/remembering new information
Retroactive Interference
newly learned information prevents retrieval of previously learned material
Serial Position Effect
form of interference related to the sequence in which information is presented. items in the middle usually forgotten
Misattribution
memory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place or person
Expectancy Bias
tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
Mnemonics
technique for improving memory, making connections b/w new material and information already in LTM
Method of Loci
technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations
Concepts
mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience
Thinking
cognitive process involved in forming a new mental representation by manipulating available information
Natural Concepts
representation of objects and events drawn from our direct experience
Artificial Concepts
defined by rules, word definitions, and mathematical formulas
prototype
most representative example of a conceptual category
Algorithms
problem-solving procedures or formulas that always come out correctly
Schema
knowledge cluster or general conceptual frame work that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in one's life
Script
knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings
Heuristics
"rules of thumb" used as short cuts to solve problems
mental set
tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a previous problem- doesn't always work
Functional Fixedness
when the function of a familiar object becomes so set, or fixed, you cannot see a new function for it
Hindsight Bias
tendency to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance, form of distorted thinking appears after an event has occurred
Anchoring Bias
faulty heuristic caused by basing an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity (Tversky & Kahneman)
Representative Bias
strategy based on the presumption that once people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members
Availability Bias
strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled from personal experience
Creativity
mental process that produces novel responses that combine to the solution of problems
Aptitudes
innate potentialities (contrasted w/ abilities acquired by learning) Howard Gardner
Memory
system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
Encoding
task of memory, modifying information to fit preferred format, we select stimuli, we ID the sensory input, we label it, and we elaborate on it
Storage
task of memory, involves the retention of encoded material overtime
Retrieval
task of memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory
Sensory Memory
1st stage of memory, holds brief sensory impressions of stimuli, sounds, smell, texture, function is to maintain incoming info long enough to be screened for possible entry into working memory
Working Memory
(short term) 2nd stage of memory, preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute, last about 20 seconds(remembering #s) has the smallest capacity
Long-Term Memory
3rd stage of memory, receives information from working memory, has the longest duration, words, concepts are encoded by their meanings
Structures of Working Memory
1. Central Executive (directs attention) 2. Phonological Loop (stores sound) 3. Sketchpad (store/manipulates mental images)
Chunking
organizes pieces of info into a smaller number of meaningful units (frees up space in working memory)
Maintenance Rehearsal
information is repeated or reviewed to keep from fading, (involves not active elaboration)
Elaborative Rehearsal
information is not just rehearsed, but connected to knowledge already stored
Acoustic Encoding
the conversion of information to sounds patterns in working memory
Levels-of-Processing Theory
info that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long term memory
Procedural Memory
part of LTM, stores the things we know how to do
Declarative Memory
part of LTM, stores explicit info (facts and events), 2 parts
Episodic Memory
division of Declarative Memory, stores personal experiences, also stores temporal/context coding(when/where), acts ad autobiographical memory
Semantic Memory
division of Declarative Memory, stores general knowledge, meanings of words and concepts
Engram
(memory trace) physical change in the brain associated with a memory
Anterograde Amnesia
inability to form memories for new information
Consolidation
process by which short term memories are changed to long term over time
Retrograde Amnesia
inability to remember information previously stored in memory
Implicit Memory
memory that was not deliberately learned or which you had no awareness
Explicit Memory
memory that has been processed w/ attention, can be consciously recalled
Priming
technique used for cuing implicit memories, helps stimulate memories your not aware of
Recall
retrieval method, must produce previously presented information (essay question)
Recognition
retrieval method, must identify or recognize previously learned info
Mood-Congruent Memory
memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one's mood
Encoding Specificity Principle
process by which memory is encoded and stored w/ specific cues related to the context in which it was learned (recognizing something out of their usual element, stimulus that made you think of old memories)
achievement test
measures a person's mastery and knowledge of various subjects
aptitude test
assesses specific types of mental abilities
construct validity
the extent to which evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct
content validity
the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it is supposed to cover
convergent thinking
narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer
correlation coefficient
a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
creativity
the generation of ideas that are original, novel, and useful
criterion-related validity
estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test
deviation IQ scores
locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement
divergent thinking
trying to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, and regulate emotion
factor analysis
correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
heritability ratio
an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance
intelligence
aggregate or global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a child's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
intelligence test
measures general mental ability
mental age
displaying the mental performance typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age
mental retardation (intellectual disability)
subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18
multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner's theory that people process information differently and intelligence is composed of many different factors, including at least eight intelligences: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic
normal distribution
a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population
norms
standards used to compare scores of test takers
percentile score
indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained
personality test
measures various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes
psychological test
a standardized measure of a sample of a person's behavior; used to measure individual differences among people in their abilities, aptitude, interests, and aspects of personality
psychometricians
measurement psychologists; focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data. Measure mental traits, abilities, and processes
reaction range
genetically determined limits on IQ (or other traits)
reliability
the measurement consistency of a test or other kinds of measurement technique
Rorschach Inkblot Test
a sequence of ten inkblots, each of which the participant is asked to observe and then characterize. Different aspects of the participant's descriptions, such as form and movement of objects, are scored to yield an evaluation of the participant's personality
standardization
A two-part test development procedure. First, test norms are established from the test results of a large representative sample. Then, procedures are created to assure that the test is both administered and scored uniformly for all test takers.
Stanford-Binet intelligence test
an individual IQ test with IQ calculated using a ratio formula: mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. Now, IQ is based on deviation from mean. Five ability areas are assessed both verbally and nonverbally
stereotype threat
the concept that anxiety influences achievement of members of a group concerned that their performance on a test will confirm a negative stereotype.
test norms
provide information about where a score on a test ranks in relation to other scores on that test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a series of pictures of people in ambiguous relationships with other people. The participant generates a story to accompany the picture, including both what led up to the scene in the picture and what will occur next. The participant's responses are used to make judgments about his personality.
triarchic theory of intelligence
three separate and testable intelligences: analytical (facts), practical ("street smarts") and creative (seeing multiple solutions)
validity
the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
Wechsler intelligence tests
three age-based individual IQ tests: WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); two scores - verbal and performance