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Sociology Test 1

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History and Biography
What are 2 components C. rigt Mills identified as being fundamental to understanding the sociological imagination?
Auguste Comte
Which social scientist first proposed applying the scientific method to the social world, a practice known as positivism?
The survival of the fittest
Herbert Spencer believed that scoieties evolved from lower to higher forms because as generations pass, the most capabl and intelligent members of society prosper while the less capable die out. What term did Spencer use to describe this process?
a single proesant man living in the city
Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which of the following individuals would be the greatest suicide risk?
Marx believed economics was the central force of social change and Weber claimed it was religion
How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions?
symbolic interactionism
People may change their opinions about an issue such a divorce based on a restructuring of that image, the issues involved, and what they mean. This is an exampleof which sociological perspective?
Functional analysis
Which sociological perspective stresses that society is a whole unti, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously?
Conflict theory
Which sociological perspective views society as being compose of groups that engage in fierce competition fo scarce resources?
population; sample
Jim and im are doing a survery on the opinion students have regarding race relations at the local college. There are 20,000 students at this college but they plan to only survery 1,000 of them. In view of this, the 20,000 students would be considered as the ______ and the 1,000 students would be the ______.
Secondary Analysis
Anthony is conducting research on organized crime in Kansas City. Rather than interviewing criminals or going undercover, he is examining data obtained from the Police Department. In this case, what is the reseach method Anthony is using?
Human Behavior
Sociology is the study of:
The sociologicl imagination
The ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life is referred to as:
C. Wright Mills
Which of the following social thinkers is associated with the concept of "the sociological imagination"?
Comprehend the whole of human society and its influence on the lives of human beings
According to Mills, the specific task of sociology is to:
careful and systematic observations
The empirical approach to knowledge requires that conclusions be based on:
All of the above
Sociologists are likely to study:
A.) persistant problems embedded in society
B.) How families adapt to changing social conditions
C.) Issues that affect daily life
D.) All of the above
the black teens felt embarrassed and stigmtized by being pregnant
In "Doing Sociological Research: Debunking the Myths of Black Teenage Motherhood," summary of Elaine Bell Kaplan's research concluded that:
Debunking
Peter Berger called the process whereby sociologists question actions and ideas that are usually taken for granted
All of the above
Footbinding in China:
A.) was believed to create more arousal in men
B.) created small feet that were considered elite
C.) made women more dependent on men
D.) all of the above
all of the above
Diversity is a broad concept that includes studying:
A.) group differences in society's opportunities
B.) the process of social change
C.) the formation of group and individual identity
D.) all of the above
faith in the ability of human reason to solve society's problems
The Enlightenment had an enormous influence on he devvelopment of modern sociology because it was characterized by:
scientific observation and description
Positivism refers to:
interested in the newly emerging culture in America
Alexis de Tocqueville and Harriet Martineau were alike in that both were
functionalism
Durkheim's work is the basis for:
nonmaterial culture
Which term is used to describe a group's way of thinking, gestures, language, values, and social norms?
Shared and learned ways of being and doing become taken-for granted assumptions
When sociologists use the phrase the culture within us, what do they mean?
culture shock
Mark is a foreign exchange student living with a Chinese family. The first night he was with them his hosts served a delicious entree of meat and vegetables. Although tasty, Mark could not identify the meat. When his host told him it was roast dog, Mark became upset and decided to be a vegetarian for the course of his stay. In view of this, which sociological concept did Mark just experience?
ethnocentrism
What is the tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging the behavior, values, and beliefs of others?
cultural relativism
Jane is exploring how the various aspects of the Nepali culture fit together including their religion, family values, and customs without judging those elements as being inferior or superior to modern Western ways. In doing so, what is she practicing?
Edward Sapir; Benjamin Whorf
Who were the two anthropologists who concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world?
norms
What are the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values?
subculture
In December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of light," during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith represent a ________.
individualism
Americans cherish the ideal that anyone can rise from the bottom of society to its very top. What value
identified by Robin Williams is illustrated by this belief?
all of the above
Culture includes:
a. ways of thinking
b. patterns of behavior
c. the objects people make and use
d. all of these choices
d. the American value of individualism
Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
a. a work of art
b. a fashion magazine
c. music CDs
d. the American value of individualism
all of these choices
Which of the following statements about culture is true?
a. culture is shared
b. culture is learned
c. culture is taken for granted
d. all of these choices
b. of the significance people bestow on them as cultural symbols
People stand during the National Anthem and are emotionally moved by a cross or Star of David because
build group solidarity.
An ethnocentric perspective tends to
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
The theory that language determines other aspects of culture since language shapes the way that people perceive the world is called the _____.
folkways and mores
Two classic cultural concepts associated with the work of William Graham Sumner are:
they have learned and internalized the common expectations for behavior.
People generally follow norms for behavior because
all of the above
The Kwakiutl potlatch involves
a. the accumulation of many goods.
b. giving away possessions to one's followers and rivals.
c. sometimes intentionally destroying goods.
d. all of the above
Asia and Latin America
Today most new immigrants to the United States come from _____.
the culture of the most powerful group
In every society, the dominant culture is
all of these
The widely acknowledged "American" culture is strongly influenced by:
a. television
b. the fashion industry
c. the Anglo-European traditions
d. all of these
today tattoos are a symbol of independence and freedom from social constraints.
Katherine Irwin's study of tattooing among the middle class found that
television
For most Americans, leisure time is dominated by:
none of these
Which of the following groups are more likely to live in "constant television households"?
a. Black children
b. White children
c. Hispanic children
d. none of these choices
shaped by commercial interests.
From a sociological perspective, the news presented in the media is
heredity
In the "nature vs. nurture" controversy, which of the following terms least applies to nurture?
The training had little effect, and Genie lived a primitive lifestyle
What was the result of intensified remedial training given to Genie, a 13-year-old feral child discovered in California in 1970?
the self
What term describes the unique image we hold of who we are?
Our self concept develops from interaction with others
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?
through play and social interaction
According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?
"looking-glass self"
Linda is a new sociology professor at the local college. During her first lecture, she noticed that some students were yawning. Based on her interpretation of the students yawning, Linda has decided she is a boring teacher. This is an example of the process referred to as ________.
the play stage
Frank is five years of age. He loves to dress up like the Lone Ranger and pretend to help people in need.
According to Mead's theory, what stage best describes Frank's behavior?
preoperational
Katie is 6 years of age. She can count to 100 but is not sure what the numbers actually mean. According to Jean Piaget, in what stage is Katie functioning?
the super ego
In Sigmund Freud's theory on psychoanalysis, what is the balancing force between id and the demands of society called?
academic journals
Which of the following media least qualifies as being a form of mass media?
A) television
B) box-office Hollywood films
C) academic journals
D) video games
b. they shed light on human development without social contact.
Studies of feral children are important within sociology because
Roles
)____ are the expected behaviors associated with a given status in society.
socialization
The process through which people learn the expectations of society is called _____.
one's height and hair color
Which of the following is NOT acquired through the process of socialization?
a. customs, habits, practices of one's society
b. one's identity
c. an individual's personality
d. one's height and hair color
b. language acquisition and the psychological effects of extreme confinement
Genie was studied intensively by scientists primarily interested in
all of the above
Which of the following affects how one is socialized?
a. one's race and gender
b. social class
c. one's physical attractiveness
d. all of the above
tabula rasa
Some sociologist believe that humans are born with a "blank slate," i.e. without values or social attitudes. This referred to as _____.
nature
In regards to the Nature vs. Nurture debate, sociologists would tend to emphasize _____.
all of the above
Socialization is lifelong process that affects how we think of ourselves and others by
a. establishing one's self-concept.
b. creating the capacity for understanding the perspective of another.
c. creating the tendency to act in socially acceptable ways.
d. all of the above
c. a relationship exists between watching televised violence and engaging in aggressive behavior
Research on the impact of the media as an agent of socialization reveals that
b. studying socialization in schools is an excellent way to see the influence of gender, class, and race in shaping socialization.
Research on education in the U.S. indicates that
all of the above
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. the superego incorporates society's collective expectations
b. the ego plays a balancing act between the id and the superego
c. the id is in permanent conflict with the superego
d. all of the above are true
We watch others and learn the basic rules of identity.
Which of the following is NOT part of the process of the looking glass self?
a. We watch others and learn the basic rules of identity.
b. We consider how we think we appear to others.
c. We consider how we think others judge us.
d. How we think others perceive us affect how we feel.
taking the role of the other
George Herbert Mead is most associated with the concept(s) of _____.
imitation, play, game
Mead's stages, in their correct order, are:
It must be a rule written into law.
For a deviant act to be classified as a crime, what quality must pertain to it?
norms
Which concept of culture is credited with making social life possible and behavior predictable?
Anthony is the recipient of a positive sanction for conforming to the norms of society.
Anthony has been selected as the Outstanding Young Law Enforcement Officer by the Pennsylvania Jaycees. Sociologically, what does this award represent?
the XYY theory
Which of the following theories would a sociobiologist most likely suggest as being the cause of deviant
behavior?
A) the XYY theory
B) differential association theory
C) control theory
D) social bond theory
Sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual, and psychological explanations address conditions within the individual.
What is the major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance?
their social class
Which personal characteristic of an individual would a sociologist be most likely to address when trying to determine the cause of an individual's deviant behavior?
group association
Based on his famous theory explaining the cause of deviance and crime, what would Edwin Sutherland
consider as the underlying cause of deviance?
When we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society
Based on control theory, when are inner controls more effective?
One deviant act leads to another which increases social solidarity.
Emile Durkheim stated several reasons why deviance was actually functional for society. Which of the
following was not one of them?
A) One deviant act leads to another which increases social solidarity.
B) Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms.
C) Deviance promotes social unity.
D) Deviance promotes social change.
a. stresses social context, not individual behavior
The sociological definition of social deviance
body piercing
Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?
a. a traffic ticket
b. underage drinking
c. body piercing
d. polygamy
a. in order to recognize normal behavior
According to Durkheim, why do societies actually need deviance?
all of the above
Deviant behavior
a. has no similarity to "normal" behavior.
b. may be encouraged by subcultures or other identity groups.
c. is weird, pathological behavior.
d. all of the above
individual factors
Psychological explanations of deviance emphasize _____ as the underlying cause of deviant behavior.
all of the above
From a sociological perspective, deviance
a. originates in society, not in individuals.
b. is an adaptation to the social structures in which people live.
c. requires society to change in order to be resolved the behavior.
d. all of the above
found in social factors
Durkheim believed that the causes of suicide were
the tension between desired cultural goals and the means of achieving them
Merton's structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to _____.
functionalist
Travis Hirschi's social control theory is a type of _____ theory
conflict
According to the _____ perspective, deviance results from inequality in society.
symbolic interaction theory
Which of the following theories are microsociological theories?
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. none of these choices