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Manifest Destiny

belief that the U.S. was meant to expand from coast to coast

Mountain men

trappers and explorers who opened up the western pioneer trails


member of a church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830

Land speculators

people who buy land in the hope that it will increase in value


people who accept a new religious belief


meeting; from a French word meaninf "present yourselves"


People of Mexican heritage who consider Texas their home

Lone Star Republic

nickname of the republic of Texas once free from Mexico


name the Spanish explorers gave present-day Texas


hoin or merge territory into an existing political unit as a country or state

Bear Flag Republic

rebellion by Americans in 1849 against Mexican rule of California

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

treaty that ended the War with Mexico

Mexican cession

Mexican territory surrendered to the United States at the end of the war with Mexico


a person who went to California to find gold in 1849


settlers of Spanish or Mexican descent who populated in California


movement of people from one country or locality to another

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