Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
APES Unit 3
Terms in this set (24)
Endangered Species, Explain why at least 2 species are endangered
Black Bear (human destruction of habitat is causing mountain climate, hunting for its fur and food), Polar Bears (pollution causing global warming, humans)
Invasive Species: explain why 2 species are invasive and how we can stop them
Chinese Hardy Orchid (in Italy, vs photosynthesis, prevents plants from getting water, affects plants and consumers), The Cane Toad (use pheromones to attack eggs), create an antidote to prevent the species from spreading, spread the word
Describe the threats to many of the world's amphibian species and explain why we should avoid hastening the extinction of any amphibian species through our activities
Disease, pollution, loss of habitat, if we loose amphibians, we loose all of the amphibian biodoversity
Describe Primary and Secondary succession and give an example of each
Primary succession is when something grows on brand unused land (sand dunes), Secondary succession is when something grows on previously used land (abandoned cropland)
Describe and give an example of resource partitioning and explain how it can increase biodiversity
Resource Partitioning is the sharing of resources through species but in different parts of the resource (birds on a tree), biodiversity increases because every species uses a different part of the resource to not run out of one resource, and use variety
Define biodiversity and list and describe its four major components. What is the importance of biodiversity? Define species? Summarize the importance of insects. Define and give three examples of biomes. Summarize the scientific contributions of Edward O Wilson.
biodiversity is the variety of life, genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity, functional diversity, biodiversity affect the energy flow and matter of cycling which matters for ecosystems and survival, forest biome, dessert biome, grassland biome, Edward O Wilson studied bug diversity
What is a fossil and why are fossils important for understanding the history of life? What is biological evolution (or evolution)? State the theory of evolution. What is natural selection? What is a mutation and what role do mutations play in evolution by natural selection? What is an adaptation (adaptive trait)? How did humans become such a powerful species? What are two limits on evolution by natural selection?
Fossils are the remains of dead creatures, it shows us how creatures evolved, biological evolution is put through natural selection, natural selection is the part of the species whom endures the given environmental conditions (mutations), mutations are the genes that can survive a new environment, mutations will eventually overcome the other genes and adapt, humans have traits that make us intelligent and initiative, the two limits are genetic variation and trade offs
Describe how geologic processes can affect natural selection. How can climate change and catastrophes such as asteroid impacts affect natural selection?
Geologic Processes are any natural disastersvolcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides that affect a species condition. If these species can't accommodate, they'll go extinct. This causes geographic, reproductive, and genetic isolations.
Define speciation. Distinguish between geographic isolation and reproductive isolation and explain how they can lead to the formation of a new species. Distinguish between artificial selection and genetic engineering and give an example of each.
Speciation is the formation of two species from one species because of divergent natural selection in response to changes in environmental conditions. Geographic isolation is a term that refers to a population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species. Typically geographic isolation is the result of an accident or coincidence. Reproductive isolation or hybridization barriers are a collection of mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes that prevent the members of two different species that cross or mate from producing offspring, or which ensure that any offspring that may be produced are sterile.
What is extinction? What is an endemic species and why can such a species be vulnerable to extinction? Distinguish between background extinction rate and mass extinction.
extinction is when an entire species is gone, endemic species are native species, endemic spcies can be so adapted to their nativeness that its hard to evolve, Background Extinction Rate is the rate at which a species becomes extinct on its own (through natural occurring events); whereas mass extinction is caused by one specific widespread disaster
Define species diversity and distinguish between species richness and species evenness. Explain why species-rich ecosystems tend to be productive and sustainable.
What are the two key concepts for this section? Define and distinguish between an ecological niche (or niche) and a habitat. Distinguish between generalist species and specialist species and give an example of each. Why has the fact that the giant panda is a specialist species led to its classification as an endangered species?
Ecological niche: the role and position a species has on its environment. how it survives, meets its needs, and reproduces. The interactions of all the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment.
Habitat: an environmental area inhabited by a particular species Generalist species: a species able to survive in a wide variety or environmental conditions. and can make use of all the different resources in the area. Ex. cockroach, raccoon, rat, horseshoe crab and rat. Specialist species: can only survive in a narrow range of environmental conditions and has a limited diet. Ex. Orchid mantis, Koala Because the giant panda is a specialist species, It's harder for them to adapt to new environments, all because of their narrow pathway. They are very limited species and can only stay for so long.
Define and distinguish among native, nonnative, indicator and keystone species and give an example of each. What major ecological roles do amphibian species play (Core Case Study)? List six factors that contribute to the threats of extinction for frogs and other amphibians. What are three reasons for protecting amphibians? Describe the role of the American alligator as a keystone species.
Native species are defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural processes, with no human intervention. For example, the albatross is native to New Zealand. A nonnative species is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. An example of a nonnative species, or an invasive species is The Black Rat. An indicator species is a species whose abundance in a given area is believed to indicate certain environmental conditions for a group of other species. An example of an indicator species would be plants or lichens sensitive to heavy metals or acids in precipitation may be indicators of air pollution. Lastly, a keystone species is a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend. An example of a keystone species is a sea otter.
Three reasons for protecting amphibians
● They play an important role in the ecosystem.
● Amphibians may be a measure of the health of the environment
● Amphibians can be used to control insect pests
The american alligator is a keystone species because Alligators use their tails to dig burrows in mud for nesting and to keep warm. When an alligator abandons a burrow, the hole left behind fills with freshwater and is utilized by other species for breeding and drinking. If alligators are removed from their native ecosystem, it would affect countless other species.
Is the human species a keystone species? Explain. If humans were to become extinct, what are three species that might also become extinct and three species whose population would probably grow?
The definition of a keystone species species whose roles have a large effect on the types and abundance of other species in an ecosystem. With this definition, humans would be considered a keystone species because we ultimately control every species abundance by either making them go extinct or helping them to thrive depending the value that species offers us. As sad as that seems, humans do control the fate of earth's species. Species that would go extinct without humans include lice, pigeons, and many of earth's domesticated animals. Some species that would thrive without humans would be bison which we hunt for food, polar bears, and pandas.
How would you respond to someone who says that because extinction is a natural process, we should not worry about the loss of biodiversity when species become extinct largely as a result of our activities?
We should worry about the loss of biodiversity when species become extinct because with a lack of variation it will ruin the cycle of life and the environment will no longer become sustainable. Every animal needs to rely on certain natural processes so they can fulfill their part on the cycle of life.
Define interspecific competition. Define and give two examples of resource partitioning and explain how it can increase species diversity. Define predation and distinguish between a predator species and a prey species and give an example of each. What is a predator-prey relationship?
Interspecific competition is competition between species. Resource Partitioning is coexistence between species. Species avoid competition (interspecifically) by partitioning resources and habitats among themselves. For example, some birds will share the same tree, but only use certain parts of the tree. Seashells will rest at different spots of the reef depending on the type of seashell. Predation relationships benefit the predator but harms the prey, like a lion and a deer.
Describe three ways in which predators can increase their chances of feeding on their prey and three ways in which prey species can avoid their predators. Define and give an example of coevolution.
Some ways that predators can increase their chances of feeding on their prey include camouflage, chemical warfare, ability to fly faster than the prey, and better vision. Some ways in which prey species can avoid their predators include camouflage, protective shells, chemical warfare and a highly developed sense of sight or smell that alerts them to the presence of predators. Coevolution occurs when populations of two different species interact in such a way over a long period of time; changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other. Such changes can help both sides become more competitive, or avoid or reduce competition. An example is bees and flower
Define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism and give an example of each. Explain how each of these species interactions, along with predation, can affect the population sizes of species in ecosystems.
Parasitism When one species (the parasite) benefits while hurting/ affecting another species (the host)
● Ex. The Cane Toad
Mutualism When both species benefit from their relationship
● Oxpecker and Rhinos or zebras
Commensalism When one species benefits while another species is not affected
● Any instance of a species living in a tree
Predator and prey relationships maintain the cycle and balance of the ecosystem (life)
What is ecological succession? Distinguish between primary ecological succession and secondary ecological succession and give an example of each. List three factors that can affect how ecological succession occurs. Explain why succession does not follow a predictable path.
Explain how living systems achieve some degree of sustainability by undergoing constant change in response to changing environmental conditions. In terms of stability of ecosystems, distinguish between inertia (persistence) and resilience and give an example of each.
in terms of stability of ecosystems,
distinguishing between inertia (persistence ) and resilience and give a population's age structure
and why are three major age groups limiting. Define range of populations density increases
Describe two different reproductive strategies that can enhance the long term survival of a
Inerta: wanting to do nothing
resilience: able to spring back
Living systems achieve to some degree, sustainability by undergoing constant change in
response to changing environmental conditions. They can sustain the species cycles, when a
animal in willing to spring back, I want resilience, in order to jump in and keep the cycle
renewing, And the ability to do nothing, inerta, There is no use of energy or matter, one nothing
Define population. Why do most populations live in clumps? List four variables that govern changes in population size. Write an equation showing how they interact. What is a population's age structure and what are three major age groups called? Define range of tolerance. Define limiting factor and give an example. State the limiting factor principle. Define population density and explain how some limiting factors can become more important as a population's density increases. Describe two different reproductive strategies that can enhance the long-term survival of a species.
Distinguish between the environmental resistance and the carrying capacity of an environment, and use these concepts to explain why there are always limits to population growth in nature.
Environmental resistance is all of the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a
population. This limits population growth because if there is resistance from the environment, it
limits growth. Carrying capacity is the maximum population of a particular species that a given
habitat can support over a given period. This limits population growth because when a species
population reaches a certain point, it can't sustain it any longer and therefore limits its growth.
Define and give an example of a population crash. Explain why humans are not exempt from nature's population controls.
"A population crash is a sudden decline in the number of individuals found in a
population because of a scarcity of environmental resources that are required for
survival, growth, and reproduction."
An example of a population crash is of sharks. Ocean whitetip sharks used to be the
most common shark but now are almost completely extinct. Humans are not exempt
from nature's population controls because whatever happens in our environments will
end up affecting us someway or another. Whether we run out of food or resources in an
ecosystem that will affect so many things amongst our market.
Use the second law of thermodynamics to explain why predators are generally less abundant than their prey. In your explanation, make use of the pyramid of energy flow
According to the food chain, energy is lost as level of consumption increases. Energy is lost with each step up. The predator (consumers) will receive less energy because the prey (primary consumers) received almost no energy from the producer.
Recommended textbook explanations
Texas Science Fusion: Grade 7
Biology Study Workbook A
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Texas Science Fusion: Grade 6
Prentice Hall Biology (California)
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Sets found in the same folder
APES Chapter 7 and 10
AP ENV CH4&3 INDEX CRDS + CHPT Q
APES unit 2 FRQ'a
apes unit 2 test
Sets with similar terms
APES-Chapter 4 Biodiversity and Evolution
APES Midterm Chapter 4 Biodiversity and…
APES - Ch. 6 Lecture Questions
Other sets by this creator
Other Quizlet sets
practice cosmetology test
История. Тема 3.2.5. Даты всеобщей истории
FMF GCE 119: COMBAT ENGINEER BATTALION (CEB) FUNDA…
NURSE 1300- EXAM ONE