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Nutrition - Wiseman
Terms in this set (127)
Types of Input
Energy, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, and EFA's
Types of Losses
Metabolic: Urine, Methane, Heat
Types of Output
Meat, Milk, Eggs
What are some Basic Principles?
Stage of development (young vs old)
Digestive physiology (ruminant vs non-ruminant vs hind gut)
Feeding behavior (omnivore vs selective)
Function of 3 main areas of the intestinal tract
Large fermentation vessel: Microflora, degrade plant fiber, absorb products
Small Intestine: Endogenous enzymes, nutrient absorption
Large Intestine: Further microbial activity, absorb products, resorption of water and minerals (main function for land based animals)
Enzyme produced by salivary gland
Salivary amylase (starch)
Enzyme produced by gastric mucosa
Enzymes produced by Pancreas
Trypsin (protein), Chymotrypsin (protein), Pancreatic Lipase (triglyceride), Pancreatic alpha-amylase (starch), Ribonuclease (RNA), Deoxyribonuclease (DNA)
Enzymes of the intestinal mucosa
Aminopeptidase (peptides), Dipeptidase (dipeptides), Maltase (maltose), Lactase (lactose)
Which animal lacks Lactase?
Why don't chickens have teeth?
They weigh alot, therefore have a strong but light beak - gizzard = muscular stomach - grinds food
How does Hind gut fermentation work?
Have a very large large intestine which enables them to digest fiber (ex: rabbit and horse)
Why are cats unable to digest fiber?
Have a very small large intestine
provides massive fermentation vessel (influenced by diet); pH 5.5 - 6.5 (provides homeostasis)
Products of rumen microflora
VFA's (main product), microbial protein, and gasses (40% CO2, 30-40% CH4)
What are some negative effects to only feeding cows on pasture grass?
Low mineral intake (ex: calcium); poor growth; Build up of pasture worms
What type of fermentation is ideal when producing silage? Why?
Anaerobic: encourages rapid fermentation; reduction of moisture also important
What are 3 types of silage?
Grass, Maize, and Whole -crop wheat
What are some potential problems when making silage?
Variable weather conditions, uncontrolled fermentations, potential hazards (pathogens, toxic chemicals, excess acidity); too much H2O fermentation not fast enough
List some potential pathogens
E.Coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Cryptosporidium parvum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Actinomycetes, Penicillium roqueforti
Mycotoxins = Fungal toxins
Potential diseases linked to micro-organisms
Diarrhea (E Coli, Crypto, etc); Mastitis (E Coli, etc); Listeriosis (L monocytogenes); "Silage eye" (L monocytogenes?); Botulism (C botulinum); Resp distress from fungal spores
Crop contaminated w/ soil (happens when crop cut too close to ground); wet silage; O2 infiltration into silage; mouldy silage fed to animals
Silage contaminated w/ carcass; wet silage; causes death
What are some clinical signs of Acidosis?
Excessive intake of minerals, preference for straw, urine drinking, regurgitation, low milk fat %, diarrhea, hyperventilation, lethargy, bloat
What is the treatment for acidosis?
NaHCO3, and long fiber to stimulate chewing and rumination
What is different about Birds?
Do not have teeth, some have a crop ("short term" storage and mucous secreting), Glandular stomach, Muscular stomach (grinds and mixes)
Large incisors and canines (rip food)
Large molars and premolars (grind food)
Combo of incisors and molars
What are different types of feeding behaviors?
Trickle feeder (large # small meals); Grazing herbivores (several hrs at pasture); Carnivores (large felines eat a large meal every couple days, small felines eat a little amt and often); Omnivores (opportunistic feeders)
What are the objectives in nutrition?
Relate input to output
Quantify optimum output
Give an example of a within class interaction
Calcium and phosphorous (both minerals)
Give an example of a between classes interaction
Selenium and Vitamin E (mineral : vitamin) or
Vitamin E and Linoleic acid (vitamin : EFA)
What is NDF?
Neutral detergent fiber (isolates lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose - plant cell wall)
What is ADF?
Acid detergent Fiber (isolates lignin and cellulose)
What is Gross Energy (GE)?
Energy released when dietary raw material or complete feed is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen
Simple and quick to determine - but does not take any losses into account
What is Digestible Energy (DE)?
energy available following digestion
DE = GE - Fecal energy
Simple to determine - accounts for major proportion of variable losses - widely w/in diet formulation in pigs
What is Metabolisable Energy (ME)?
ME = GE - (Fecal + urinary + methane energy)
Most appropriate for poultry - digestive losses difficult to separate
What is Net Energy (NE)?
energy available for maintenance and production
NE = GE - (fecal + urinary + methane energy + heat increment)
Best estimate of dietary energy actually available to the animal - but difficult to measure
What problems arise w/ unsaturated fatty acids?
Depress DMI (dry matter intake); impair fiber digestion, toxic to rumen bacteria, signal cow to cease eating, impair rumen fermentation
What are some benefits to saturated fatty acids?
Don't generally affect DMI, Rumen inert, Stearic acid (reduces fat accumulation in liver, improves reproductive performance)
What are the 3 VFA's?
Acetate, Butyrate, and Propionate
Which has a higher concentration of Acetate: Grass, Grass silage, or Hay?
What is a more nutritionally acceptable definition of fiber?
Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
What are some problems with fiber?
Hard to distinguish which fiber fractions are of nutritional relevance, variable response depending on origin, variability with age (older animals digest fiber than younger)
What are the 2 major categories of Carbohydrates?
Starch and Fibers
What is the general formula for Monosaccharides?
(CH2O)x Ex: Hexose C6H12O6 (glucose)
Consist of 2 carbohydrate monomers ex: Lactose (glucose - galactose)
What are examples of digestible Polysaccharides?
Starch (polymer of glucose - mainly alpha 1-4 bonds - plants)
Amylopectin (polymer of glucose - mainly alpha 1-4 some alpha 1-6 bonds - "waxy" cereals)
What are some non digestible, but fermentable polysaccharides?
Cellulose (beta 1-6 bonds - main structural component in plants)
Lignin (not a carb! but intimately linked to plant cell wall)
What is Phytic Acid?
A hexose that irreversibly binds phosphorous - over 90% of P in wheat bran unavailable due to phytic acid - need to supplement w/ phytase (from Aspergillus niger)
What happens if feed high levels of barley?
Get viscous digesta due to beta-glucan; avian and young pigs unable to cope w/ beta-glucans
What is the highest energy yielding cereal?
Maize (no beta-glucans)
What are examples of Legume alpha galactosides?
Raffinose (sucrose - galactose)
Stachyose (sucrose - galactose - galactose)
Verbascose (sucrose - galactose - galactose - galactose)
What animal lacks alpha amylase?
What will starch overload in cecum encourage?
excessive Bacterial proliferation
What is unique about Lactase?
it is only found in juvenilles during lactation (to breakdown lactose which is mammalian milk sugar) - adult animals intolerant of lactose
What is the major energy yielding component in diets for non-ruminants?
When is starch less digestible?
In it's "raw" crystalline form - pre-treat/heat to make more digestible
What happens to piglets post weaning?
Enzyme system collapses and unable to digest starch - need to feed processed wheat post weaning to prevent cholic
What happens if starch undigested in small intestine?
Bad: microbial proliferation, diarrhea, dehydration, death
Good: more acidic environment, reduced pathogen colonization
What are proteins made up of?
Chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
20 in total
What are the 4 protein structures?
Primary: sequence of a chain of AA's
Secondary: Sheet or helix formation
Tertiary: Folds back on itself
Quanternary: consist of more than one AA chain
What are some animal protein sources?
Animal co-products (meat, bone, blood meals)
Fish products (fish meals)
What are some plant protein sources?
Oilseeds (soya, canola, sunflower, plam kernal, cotton seed)
Legumes (peas, beans) - no oil, increased levels of protein
Why is crude protein not a good measure of nutritional quality?
Does not account for variable N content, assumes all N from protein, does not consider protein quality
What is a dietary requirement for non-ruminants?
Essential amino acids (cannot be synthesized)
List the essential amino acids
Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine, Lysine, Methlonine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, and Histidine
List the conditionally essential amino acids
Arginine, Cysteine, Glycine, Proline, Serine, and Tyrosine
cannot be synthesized fast enough under certain conditions (ex: high performance)
List the non essential amino acids
Alanine, Aspartate, Asparagine, Glutamate, Glutamine
Which 2 amino acids are usually grouped together?
Methionine and Cysteine (sulphates)
What does an obligate carnivore need that can only be found in meat?
What is the plant protein of the best quality?
Soya - well balanced in Threonine and Methlonine + Cysteine
What is performance restricted to?
The level of the FIRST limiting amino acid
Where is protein of no nutritional value?
What factors influence protein digestion?
Protease inhibitors: reduction in protein digestibility, reduction in growth rate, increase demand for methionine + cystine, pancreatic hypertrophy
Why should you always pre treat/heat soybeans?
Contains large amt of Trypsin inhibitors
What are the different processing techniques?
Micronising: Gas burners heat ceramic tiles
Autoclaving: Moist heat under pressure
Extrusion: wet or dry
Jet sploding/expansion: material heated and "explodes" into are of low pressure
What is the definition of extrusion?
"to shape by forcing through a specially designed opening often after prev heating of material"
What is the definition of a lipid?
not soluble in H2O, but soluble in non-polar organic solvents
usually related to fatty acids
What is a Fatty acid?
long chain of carbon atoms with a terminal methyl group and carboxyl group
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated?
Saturated: Single bonds (C18:0) - solid at room temp
Unsaturated: double bonds present (C18:2) - liquid at room temp
What are the most nutritionally useful fatty acids?
C14 thru C18
What are the 2 classifications of lipids?
Glycerol (Fats/oils, galactolipids, cephalins) and non-Glycerol based (waxes, steroids, terpenes, prostoglandins, sphingomyelins, cerebrosides)
What is Trihydric alcohol?
Backbone for many of the more simple lipids
What is the definition of a Triglyceride?
3 fatty acids based on 1 glycerol molecule
Which phospholipid is an important emulsifier of fats and lipids?
Which type of fat acid is more digestible?
Unsaturated > saturated
Triglyceride > free fatty acids
Med chain lengths > long chain
Why do preweaned animals have limited bile and pancreatic lipase production?
oil droplets very small in milk fat therefore easier to absorb and digest
What circulation do bile salts enter? Why?
Hepatic circulation - to be recirculated back into upper region of small intestine
Why are fats/oils included in animal diets?
have double the energy yielding potential of carbohydrates
What are the Essential fatty acids?
Linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6)
Linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3)
What are the 2 main reasons for essential fatty acids?
Precursors for a # of higher chain fatty acids and key metabolites (ex: prostoglandins)
*involved in maintaining cell membrane integrity
What are the 2 key enzyme systems for fatty acid conversions?
Chain elongation (elongase)
Why is an increased level of oleic acid a bad idea?
Oleic acid (found in canola oil) competes with EFA's for enzymes and therefore can create deficiency in EFA's
What is a cause of Zinc deficiency?
Zn and Fe involved in chain elongation and desaturation - therefore can reduce desaturase activity. Clinical signs: flaky dry skin
What is the optimum ratio for EFA's?
n-6 to n-3
5 : 1
Benefits: performance, reproduction, immune status, appearance
What is the problem w/ long chain EFA's?
unstable - therefore antioxidants should be added early during processing (oxidation cannot be reversed)
What animals are unable to synthesize Vit C?
Humans, bats, and guinea pigs
What is the definition of a nutrient?
Molecule with a precise metabolic function
Which are the fat soluble vitamins?
A (sight and integrity of epithelial cells); D (regulation of intestinal absorption and metabolism of Calcium); E (antioxidant, immunity); K (coagulation)
Which species must have preformed vitamin A in their diets?
What is the most common cause of blindness in children?
Vit A deficiency: Drying and degenerative disease of the cornea (Xeropthalmia)
How do Birds and fur bearing animals obtain Vit D?
Preening - obtain D from oily secretions deposited onto fur/feathers and then consumed orally
How is Calcitrol (active form of Vit D) synthesized?
From 7 dehydrocholesterol (produced in skin) following ultra-violet light radiation
What are the functions of Vit E?
in vivo antioxidant, stimulate immune response, stability of meat
What does Vit E interact with?
Selenium (mineral): functions compliment eachother
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids: unstable therefore increase dietary levels of Vit E
How is Vit K essential in coagulation?
Behind synthesis of several coag factors: prothrombin, proconvertin, antihemophillic factor B, and stuart factor
Also involved in: bone metabolism and vascular biology
How do rodenticides work?
Block action of K1
What are the 2 naturally occurring forms of Vit K?
K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menadione)
Which Vitamin is H2O soluble?
What are the 2 main groups of B Vitamins?
Transfer of Molecular groups (Thiamine, Biotin, Folic acid, B12)
Oxido-reduction reactions (Niacin, B2)
What are signs of Thiamine (B1) deficiency?
Nervous system and heart are particularly sensitive (have oxidative metabolism)
common sign: opisthotonous (head "fixed" back over neck) and "stargazing"
What are symptoms of Pantothenic acid deficiency?
Nervous, gastrointestinal, and immune disorders
skin lesions and changes in coat
alterations in lipid and carb metabolism
Why is consuming excessive amounts of liver dangerous to cats?
Vitamin A toxicity (cats unable to regulate vit A) - muscle soreness and hyperesthesia (increased touch sensitivity)
Which 3 minerals maintain electrolyte balance?
Na, K, Cl
What is the role of Calcium?
Muscle contraction/relaxation, Neuronal transmission, Blood coagulation, enzyme activation, and bone mineralization
What is the role of Phosphorus?
Phospholipids, ATP and creatine phosphate, phosphorylation, phosphate buffers, and bone mineralization
What is Calcium binding protein synthesis dependent on?
Name 3 parts of body that can lead to Calcaemia
Kidney, gut, and bone
What are the symptoms of Milk Fever? What is the treatment?
Difficulty standing, staggering, may fall, head to one side
Give calcium either IV or orally
What are some symptoms of calcium deficiency?
Panting, decrease in blood CO2, rise in blood pH, decrease in blood calcium
Why is Fe important?
Haem proteins involved in O2 transport, oxidation/reduction
Which animal has a specific problem with Fe deficiency?
Neonatal piglets - sow milk has low levels, levels can fall by half in 10 days
Tx: IM injection of Fe (about 48hrs post-partum)
What is the importance of Copper?
Linked to the function of many enzymes (ex: cytochrome oxidase, tyrosinase, monoamine oxidase)
What are "Zinc Fingers"?
Structural elements of proteins (transcription factors that recognize DNA base sequences during replication and transcription of DNA)
What does endogenous mean?
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