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Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 3
Terms in this set (49)
Scientific study of interaction among organisms and between organsims and their environment, or surroundings.
the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air or atmosphere
individual, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
Six levels of organization from Species to Biosphere (smallest to largest)
3 basic approaches to researching ecology
Observing, experimenting, modeling
The main energy source for life on earth. It can produce as much as 3.5 kilograms of living tissue per square meter a year in some tropical forests.
another source of energy, not the sun
Some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds
plants, and some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food.
use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules. These molecules combine and recombine to produce living tissue.
make their own food, either from capturing energy from sunlight or by capturing chemical energy. Autotroph
light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
examples of autotrophs
when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Organisms that acquire energy from other organisms. Also known as heterotrophs.
Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply.
obtain energy by eating only plants: cows, caterpillars, deer
eat animals: including snakes, dogs, owls
eat both plants and animals: Humans, bears, crows
feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter. mites, earthworms, snails and crabs.
a group of heterotroph that breaks down organic matter: bacteria, fungi
Energy flow or how energy moves through ecosystems
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction - from the sun (or inorganic compounds) to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem forming a network of complex interactions
links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.
Each step in a food chain or food web
Levels of food web feeding relationships
Top to bottom: Top-level: carnivores, First-level: carnivores, Herbivores, Decomposers & Producers
A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
A diagram that shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Name the 4 levels.
The amount of energy available within one trophic level that can be transferred to organisms at the next trophic level
The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level - usually expressed terms of grams of organic matter per unit area.
A diagram that represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.
autotroph, herbivore, omnivore
Put in order (bottom to top) as a food chain: omnivore, autotroph, herbivore
Pyramid of numbers
a diagram showing the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level
The rate at which organic matter is created by producers. Dependent on the amount of available nutrients.
A single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly within an ecosystem - it will affect an organisms growth
When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient - such as runoff from a heavily fertilized fields - and results in an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers.
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
The four elements that make up 95% of the body of most organisms.
(the term connects biological, geological and chemical aspects of the biosphere)
The process of elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter passing from one organism to another and from on part of the biosphere to another
Water moving between the ocean, atmosphere, and land
Process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
Water evaporating from the leaves of plants in this process.
Evaporation and Transpiration
These are both ways that water can enter the atmosphere
How matter movement is different from energy movement in ecosystem
Energy flow is one way, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems
Evaporation/transpiration to condensation, to precipitation, to run-off/seepage to root uptake and over again....
Nutrients passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles...such as Carbon Cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle.
The chemical substances that organisms require to live
The process of carbon circulating in the biosphere.
biological processes, geochemical processes, mixed biogeochemical processes, and human activity
The four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle.
Process of nitrogen circulating in the biosphere
a process by which bacteria, living in the soil and on the roots of plants called legumes, convert nitrogen gas into ammonia...(side note: other bacteria in the soil then convert the ammonia into nitrates and nitrites, Producers then use these products to make proteins. Consumers then eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins!)
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