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points that should be understood when studying Native Americans
1. There is much that is unwritten, unstudied, and underappreciated about Native Americans.
2. Native Americans are unique. Not an immigrant group, as all other minority groups were.
3. Their relationship with the dominant group lends itself to analysis from the conflict perspective.
4. Native Americans are stereotyped as 'the Indians,' with every member of this vast, heterogeneous group lumped into a single category
Proclamation of 1763
1. All land west of the Appalachian mountains was "Indian Country."
2. Any settlers west of the Appalachian who had not acquired a legal title to their land from the Indians must return to the colonies.
3. All future purchases from the Indians must be conducted in public meetings attended by representatives of the king
Northwest Territory Ordinance
o The utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
o 1802-Georgia ceded western portions of its land to the U.S
o Federal Government would nullify land claims of Cherokee Indians (60 million acres)
o Georgia annexed Cherokees' land- force upon Cherokees the law of Georgia.
o Cherokees protest- foreign nations have the constitutional rights to bring court action against a state.
o Are Native Americans = sovereign nations?
o NO- Domestic Dependent Nations
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
The Bureau of Indian Affairs
o BIA was created in 1824 in order to coordinate federal relations with Indians.
o Supervised reservations and administered supplies.
o Under BIA domination, indigenous Indians leaders were often set aside and replaced by white-controlled leaders.
o The action of the BIA is a clear example of the role of government in defining and controlling racial and ethnic groups.
o Still exists today
Dawes Allotment Act ( new rules for land ownership
o Divided land into tracts which then were allotted to members of the tribes. Any extra land left over after each tribal member received their allotment could be sold to the US.
o Act prohibited land from being sold for 25 years.
o The Dawes Act was the centerpiece of the general effort to bring Native Americans into the mainstream of American society.
o The main effect of the act was that Native Americans lost land. (90 million of the 138 million acres were lost)
o Another effect was that Dawes Act increased the power of the BIA.
o This increased the power of the BIA
o BIA sent children to boarding schools (1879)
o Required to speak English, covert to Christianity, and become educated in the ways of Western civilization
o Children of different tribes were mixed together
o Between sessions, children were boarded with local white families
o Indian boarding school students wore military uniforms and were forced to march
o They were given many rules and no choices. To disobey meant swift and harsh punishment
o Students were forbidden to speak their language.
o They were forbidden to speak their language.
o They were forbidden to practice religious beliefs
Indian Citizenship Act
o WWI- thousands of Native Americans served
o Token of gratitude
o Fears that the dominant group will forgo treaty obligations and detribalize the Native Americans.
o Viewed as Anglo Conformity Model
: The process by which one group (generally a minority or immigrant group) learns the culture of another group (generally the dominant group).
o Indians should be freed from Federal supervision and control.
o All laws and treaties currently in effect should be nullified.
o Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act and proposed a return to private land ownership.
o Tribes would no longer exist as legally recognized entities.
o (Repealed 20 years later)
o Termination was possible if:
o Tribes had assimilated
o Tribes were willing to sever ties with the government
o Able to survive economically with state assistance
o Over 100 small tribes were terminated. Tribes did not have the business or tax base to finance various services (e.g., health care, education, etc.).
o Many people left the reservations, moving to urban areas (threatened to extinguish tribal culture).
o No Longer had resources coming to them. Became more integrated and assimilated.
occurs when minorities adopt the traits of the dominant group to produce a homogeneous society centered around the dominant group. (BIA, boarding schools, Termination Policy, Dawes Allotment Act)
Indian Reorganization Act
o By this act, the federal government abandoned the effort to require Indians to adopt the dominant's group's lifestyle and embraced instead a pluralist policy.
o IRA restored the right of the Indian tribes to govern themselves provided they were willing to adopt the American model of representative democracy.
o Rescinded Dawes Allotment Act (programs to recover lost land)
o Boarding school system was dismantled
o Financial aid and expertise were made available for economic development of the reservation (natural resources)
o Financial assistance for college education
o Proposed an increase in self governance (reduced role of BIA)
o Cultural Pluralism A+B+C=A+B+C
Indian Civil Rights Act / Self-Determination Act
o Renunciation of the Termination Policy
o Terminated and unrecognized tribes may apply for federal recognition
o Reaffirmed the rights of Indians "to remain Indians while exercising their rights as Americans." Encouraged self determination among Native Americans.
o Tribes could negotiate with the BIA to administer their own education and social service programs
the Society for American Indians
o Prior the Indian Reorganization Act
o Many Indians who were bicultural, recognized that White-dominated industrial American society would destroy all things Indians, unless Indians joined together and created a "Pan-Indian Identity."
o Integrationist (pursue goals within framework of American Society)
o Well respected leaders (among whites and Native Americans)
o Adopted a constitution to promote the advancement of the Indian rights.
o Two major goals: (1) the abolition of the BIA; (2) Citizenship to all Indians [achieved in 1924] / active for 13 years
New Tribalism or Red Power
o During the 1960s and 70s, group of college students organized to create a new policy concerning Indian affairs.
o Stressed self-determination and pride in race and cultural heritage.
o Fish-ins: State of Washington nullified eleven federal treaties that had guaranteed the fishing rights of Indians in that state.
o 1964 Washington state
o 1854 Treaty of Medicine Creek
o US Supreme Court confirmed treaty rights in 1968 for unlimited fishing for Indians.
o 1968 They recognized it as a legitimate law
Alcatraz Island (1969)
o Native Americans- Offered $24 in glass beads and cloth (Manhattan Island-3 centuries ago)
o Occupied for a year
Used as a means to draw attention to the Native American people and be heard.
the American Indian Movement
o National organization that argued for Indian sovereignty and the protection of Indian treaties.
o During the 80s and 90s, they organized and participated in protests over land rights; the rights of tribes to sell cigarettes without state or federal taxes; and misuse of cultural symbols and religious rituals (e.g., team mascots, gestures, and logos).
o Pushed for legal action.
American Indian Religious Freedom Act (1978)
is a United States federal law and a joint resolution of Congress that was passed in 1978. It was enacted to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights and cultural practices of American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians.
Members of every American ethnic
group should be free to participate
in all of the society's major institutions,
while simultaneously retaining
ethnic heritage. (Indian Reorganization Act and Indian Civil Rights Act (1968)
Indian Removal Act
• This act was designed to force all of the Indians in the southeastern states to move west of the Mississippi.
• Ignored previous court rulings.
• Ninety-four treaties to induce native Americans to move
• Bribery, threats, and misrepresentation
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, more than 15,000 of cherokees died. By early 1840, over 100,000 Indian people had relocated
Blood quantum/Self Identification
A way of setting a limit for the government on what a "real Indian" is. Generally 1/2 to a 1/4 of blood quantum is needed to be considered a "real Indian".
Language maintenance, Indian religious freedom, Traditions:
The maintenance of tribal cultures and the development of pan-Indian culture both serve to assure that the Native Americans will have the option to remain American Indians even as they continue to assimilate the dominant culture.
Education, Occupations, Incomes:
The long period of conflict with the dominant group, unwillingness of tribes to accept dominant group culture, and prejudice and discrimination, has hindered Native Americans from participating equally in the educational, occupational, and financial spheres
Native Americans living on reservations, both by choice and circumstance, are unlikely to have very many contacts with non-Indians.
Native Americans living in urban areas may have numerous opportunities to form friendships with non-Indians.
Almost two paths that occur. Those who moved off the reservation have more primary assimilation
Rates of intermarriage for Native Americans are high compared
with those of other groups.
Areas with a large population of Native Americans, 37% men marry outside of their race
Areas with a small population of Native Americans, 62% men marry outside of their race
Used to denote movements whose aim is the realization of a better world. Among Native Americans, millenarian movements such as the Ghost Dance believe that supernatural powers will intervene and return the people to some idealized era
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
Secondary Labor Market
Sector characterized by job instability, low wages, and little mobility, and disproportionately composed of workers who are not white.
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