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Chemistry Chapter 4
Terms in this set (66)
-smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
-made of electrons, protons, and neutrons
smallest particle of a compound
stated that all matter is made up of indivisible particles called atoms
believed there were four basic elements- earth, water, air, fire
Law of definite proportions
chemical compounds contain the same elements in exactly the same ratios
Law of multiple proportions
if 2 or more compounds contain the same element then the ratio of the elements will always be whole numbers
scanning tunneling microscope
this device allows us to see the size and radius of an atom
-negatively charged subatomic particles (e-)
-particle that orbits the nucleus
positively charged subatomic particles (p+)
subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton (n0)
What Rutherford discovered and his experiment
-shot alpha particles at a piece of gold foil
-99% of them hit the back of screen, rest bounced off @ weird angles
- that atoms are mostly empty space
- there's a central core called nucleus
-discovered the proton
charged particle, usually in a compound; the charge in acu's that is on an atom
the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom (Z)
total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
number of neutrons=
mass number-atomic number
atomic number (number of protons)
have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons (same Z but different A)
is the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of the element
Atomic mass unit
(amu) one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom
an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties
horizontal row on the periodic table
vertical column on the periodic table
who discovered the proton?
Who discovered the neutron?
A-Z equals the number of _______ found in the atom
An atom that has the same number of protons as electron is called_______
4 parts of Dalton's atomic theory (multi choice on test)
-all elements are composed of tiny, invisible particles called atoms
-atoms of the same element are identical, while atoms of different elements are different
- atoms of different elements can combine in simple, whole # ratios to form compounds
-Chemical reactions occur when atoms are combined or separated
3 isotopes of hydrogen?
Who was among the first to suggest the idea of atoms?
Which is not a part of Dalton's Theory?
Atoms are always in motion
Daltons atomic theory
Part of Dalton's Atomic Theory that isn't correct
Atoms are indivisible
particle found in nucleus of an atom are?
protons and neutrons
central core of an atom
atomic number of an element in the total number of which particles in the nucleus?
an element has an atomic number of 86. number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom is?
86 protons and 86 neutrons
sum of protons and neutrons in an atom is the
all atoms of the same element have the same?
number of protons
Isotopes of the same element have different?
number of neutrons
oxygen has an atomic number of 8. determine the number of neutrons in o-16
how do isotopes of hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 differ?
hydrogen 2 has one more NEUTRON
what equals one atomic mass unit? (amu)
1/12 the mass of a carbon 12 atom
relative charge carried by an electron?
atomic number of an element with 41 neutrons and a mass number of 80?
mass number of element with 10 neutrons and atomic number of 8?
name of the isotope of hydrogen that has a mass of 3
atoms are divisible
contrary to what Dalton's Atomic Theory stated
what is the relative charge carried by a proton
how many electrons are in an atom of silver?
look at periodic table and see atomic number
determine number of neutrons in (oxygen 2) O2-18
what is the isotope name for hydrogen atom with a mass of 2?
who developed "plum pudding model" of the atom?
what Thompson discovered and his experiment
-passed electric currents through gases at low pressure. Results cathode ray, that traveled from the cathode to the anode.
-determines the charge-to-mass ratio
- discovered electrons
What Milikan discovered and his experiment
-used Thompson's charge-to-mass ratio and discovered the mass of one electron and charge of one electron
What did Chadwick discover?
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed
Why did Thompson reason that electrons must be a part of the atoms of all elements?
charge to mass ratio of electron is the same for all gases
greatest volume of the atom comes from what particle?
particle that has a mass nearly equal to the proton
average atomic mass equation
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