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140 terms

Chapter 4-Carbs

STUDY
PLAY
plant foods
Which of the following are ample amounts of carbs almost always found?
fish
All of the following are sources of dietary carbs except?
complex carb
What type of nutrient is starch?
starch
Which of the following is NOT a simple carb?
6
How many carbon atoms are found in most common dietary monosaccharides?
nitrogen
The types of atoms found in a glucose molecule include all of the following except?
glucose
Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?
simple sugars
What component accounts for the usually sweet taste of fruits?
fructose
Which of the following is known as fruit sugar or levulose?
it is sweeter tasting than sucrose
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of glucose?
fructose
What is the sweetest-tasting simple carb in the diet?
glycogen
Typical dietary sources of carbs include all of the following except?
increase in sweetness
Milk that has been treated with a commercially available lactase preparation undergoes which of the following changes?
condensation
What is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
water
Which of the following is a byproduct of the condensation of 2 molecules of glucose?
hydrolysis
The chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is termed?
sucrose
The chief carb in beet sugar is?
1 glucose, 1 fructose
What is the composition of sucrose?
2 glucose
What is the composition of maltose?
glucose
Which of the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides?
1 glucose, 1 galactose
What is the composition of lactose?
lactose
What is the principle carb of milk?
milk sugar
What is another name for lactose?
lactose
Which of the following sugars is NOT found in plants?
glycogen
What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
muscle and liver
Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues?
virtually absent from animal meats
Which of the following is a feature of glycogen?
glycogen
What is the primary storage form of carbs in the body?
fruits
Which of the following is NOT a rich source of dietary starch?
wheat
What is the staple grain of Canada, US and Europe?
corn
What is the predominant grain product in much of South and Central America?
fibers
What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and lignin?
cellulose
Which of the following is describes as a non starch polysaccharide?
cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes
Which of the following is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?
used to thicken jelly
Which of the following is a feature of the pectins?
an example of a non polysaccharide fiber is hemicellulose
Which of the following statements is NOT characteristic of fibers?
is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect
A "functional fiber" is one that?
bacteria
Which of the following plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestine?
classified according to solubility in water
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fibers except?
fermentable
What type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria?
unripe bananas
Which of the following is a common source of resistant starch?
resists hydrolysis by digestive enzymes
Which of the following is a feature of resistant starch?
it is classified as a fiber
Characteristics of dietary physic acid include all of the following except?
nonnutrient component of plant seeds
Which of the following describes the compound phytic acid?
cellulose
Which of the following fibers is insoluble?
lignins
Water-soluble fibers include all of the following except?
white rice
Which of the following contains the least amount of fiber?
mouth
Enzymatic digestion of starches takes place in the small intestine and also in the?
it elevates blood glucose levels
All of the following are properties of fiber except?
dextrins
What is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
amylase
Which of the following does NOT act on simple sugars?
small intestine
What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbs?
small intestine
The enzymes that digest dietary sugars are produced by the?
liver
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
liver
What is the first organ to receive carbs absorbed from the intestine?
constipation
All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except?
30
What percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
milk allergy
Which of the following would least likely be connected with the development of lactose intolerance?
protein
A person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's?
declines by 90-95%
For most of the world's population, what is the effect of aging on the activity of lactase?
bacteria in yogurt produce lactase
Which of the following is a characteristic of yogurt?
a change occurs in the GI bacteria
What is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms?
contains live bacterial organisms
Which of the following is a feature of kefir?
doughnut
Which contains the lowest amount of lactose per serving?
more lactose is removed during manufacturing
Why are hard cheeses lower in lactose than soft cheeses?
it is used as a filler in 1/5 prescription drugs
Which of the following is a feature of lactose?
cheddar cheese
Which of the following provides the least amount of lactose per serving?
african americans
Which shows the highest prevalence of lactose intolerance?
dextrins
Which of the following ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?
a few hours
If you were to exercise continuously, about how long would glycogen stores last?
1/3
What fraction of the body's total glycogen content is found in the liver?
muscles
In what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?
1 day
At rest, the typical body stores of glycogen can provide energy for a maximum of about?
50-100g
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carb necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown?
lowers blood glucose levels
What is the primary function of insulin?
gluconeogenesis
The process by which an amino acid is used to make glucose is termed?
glucose from a noncarb substance
Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of?
75
Which of the following values falls within the normal range of blood glucose?
BG rises, pancreas release insulin, BG levels decline, releases glucagon, stimulates liver to break down glycogen and release glucose, BG rises
Which of the following series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?
pancreas
What is the first organ to respond to an increase in BG concentration?
70-110
What is a normal range for blood glucose?
glucagon
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
BG levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon
Which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose?
40
Which of the following is most consistent with hypoglycemia?
epinephrine
When you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in BG concentration?
liver
In the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal BG levels?
diabetic
A person with a fasting blood glucose concentration of 129 would be classified as?
low
What glycemic index category would include yogurt and cheese?
high
Person eating lots of white bread, white rice and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index of?
occurs rarely in otherwise healthy people
Which of the following is a feature of the condition hypoglycemia?
should focus on total carb intake rather than type consumed
Which of the following is a feature of diabetes?
glycemic response
What term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly it returns to normal?
prediabetic
Person with a fasting blood glucose level of 101 would be classified as?
both benefit from fiber-rich foods and consumption of smaller, more frequent meals
Which of the following are characteristic of the conditions diabetes and hypoglycemia?
Type 1 Diabetes
Jimmy gives himself shots in the thigh but craves candy. His parents said that he can only eat SF snacks. Which conditions does Jimmy most likely suffer from?
many people with type 2 are obese
Which of the following is a feature of diabetes?
way of ranking foods according to potential to increase BG
Which of the following statements describes the glycemic index of foods?
baked potato
In a person with type 2, which of the following would ordinarily promote the least favorable glycemic index?
invert sugar
What is the name of the sweetener consisting of a mixture of glucose and fructose formed by chemical hydrolysis of sucrose?
high-fructose corn syrup
What is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages?
more kcalories per teaspoon than sucrose
Honey contains?
molasses
Which of the following sweeteners contains a significant amount of calcium?
it is the preferred sweetener in infant foods
All of the following are features of honey except?
dental caries
Which of the following is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?
eat a sugary snack all at one time rather than in parts throughout the day
Which will help reduce the incidence of dental caries when the diet contains sugary foods?
eating sugary dessert at the beginning of a meal, rather than the end, is less likely to promote dental caries
Which describes a relationship between carb intake and dental health?
105
How many pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average US resident each year?
3 slices of whole wheat bread
Although each portion provides about 200 kcalories, which is most nutrient dense?
30
How many kcalories are provided by 2 teaspoons of sugar?
10 tsp brown sugar
Which is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA food guide for added sugars in your diet?
25
What is the maximum percentage of total energy intake that added sugar should contribute in the diet?
provide 1/2 the energy of carbs plus small amounts of vitamins and minerals
All of the following are features of artificial sweeteners except?
an herb-derived sweetener
What is stevia?
neotame
Which artificial sweetener has a composition similar to aspartame?
methanol group
All of the following components are part of the chemical structure of aspartame except?
sucralose
Among approved sweeteners, which has the highest relative sweetness?
sucralose
Among alternative sweeteners in US, which has a structure that integrates chlorine atoms?
they have low glycemic index
Which is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
artificial sweeteners
Which is NOT a classification for the food additives mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol?
they provide kcalories
Which is a characteristic of the sugar alcohols?
sorbitol
When consumed in excess, which is most likely to lead to diarrhea?
cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria
Which is a general feature of the sugar alcohols (sugar replacers)?
2
What is the approximate energy content of most sugar alcohols?
high fiber intake
Which is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risk of deaths form heart disease?
wheat bran
All of the following are rich sources of soluble fiber except?
provide energy per gram than processed foods
Which is NOT a feature of high-fiber foods?
fiber
Modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbs for pure sugars results in a diet higher in?
may reduce risk of lung cancer but increase risk of breast cancer
All are characteristics of a high-fiber diet except?
45-65
According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intake should be carbs?
130 g
What is the RDA for carbohydrate?
1 cup baked beans, 1 apple, 1 banana, 1.5 oatmeal, 1 ounce bran cereal and .5 chopped raw carrots
Allen's need for a fiber-rich diet.
11.5
According to the ADA, what is the daily value for fiber when expressed in g per 1000 kcal?
15
How many grams of carbs are contained in one ounce of foods in the grains group?
35g
What is the DRI for fiber for a person consuming 2500 kcalories?
1 cup split peas
Which provides the most fiber?
.5 cup green beans
All provide about 15g of carb per serving except?
most cheeses provide little if any carb
Which is a feature of dairy products and carbs?
total weight loss after 1 year is same as in people on conventional diets
Which is a typical response in people following a low-carb diet?
fructose stimulates excessive release of insulin, which suppresses appetite
Which is NOT associated with the regular consumption of sugary beverages?