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edenic settings, no society, usually fail as being perfect is not human

Characteristics of Early Utopias

1. Hierarchy: lead and follow
2. Eugenics: eliminate the imperfections of humans
3. Political Repression


termed in the 1920's, creates a "control" over people, using media to control others


distrust and hostility toward well educated intellectuals and education, philosophy, art and ideas
claim selves to be champions of common people ("I'm like you")
used by Nazis, Communism (book burning)

Freud structural model of the human psyche

Id, Ego, and Superego


selfish, subconscious, basic needs (ex. baby)


rational, subconscious


morality, conscience

Social Conflict Theory

Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups within society are wealthy or poor, and that the more powerful groups use their power in order to exploit the groups with less power

Jorge Luis Borges

wrote his first story at age 9, started as a poet

Jorge Luis Borges Influences

Arthur Riboud: Symbolist Poetry, writing abstract with no logic or answers
Walt Whitman: Anti-Newtonian Writing, used science to prove things in place of God
William Blake
Philosophy: reading, focused on human being beyond physical

Jorge Luis Borges Worldview

rejected Communism, Fascism and Capitalism

Jorge Luis Borges Traits of Writing

Meta-Physical (beyond physical human)
Ultralistic: pure poetry, no form
Meta-Fiction: aware of itself as fiction

Magical Realism

literary technique intermixing supernatural events into a normal or ordinary story
done by many African-American writers

Vietnam War

last draft, but can be deferred by school
Vietnam colonized by England, France and Spain
beginning it was North vs. South, North was an ally of America, South was Communist, insurgency, Vietcong (VC) who were not military

5 Traditional Types of War Stories

1. Battle as Initiation: becoming a man
2. Platoon (collective)
3. Heroism
4. Test of Courage
5. Return to Civilian Life


Titan, prophecy said one of his children would take his power, so he ate them, until Ria, his wife, hid Zeus, who eventually jumped out from behind a rock and castrated Kronos, releasing his siblings
Karl Jung says parents want to control their offspring because they are a replica of self


"The Clouds"
one of the first pieces of fictional Utopia
highlighted corruption of Athens by comparing it to a Utopian city floating in the clouds


believed Utopian Society needed some means of regulation
for example, no marriage

5th Century BC

writing about Utopias promoted ethics and was entertainment

Sir Thomas More

created an optimistic and idealistic Utopian idea

Johnathan Smith

created a satiric "negative utopia" (dystopia) to show his opinions of England
wrote Gulliver's Travels


a bad society, one worse than our own


literature of escape, that humans are truly free, but we bind ourselves with social mores

HG Wells

optimistic Utopias, progress through science
War of the Worlds, for example

Aldous Huxley

Brave New World, political text dealing with moral issues


Lord of the Flies, criticize human institutions and human nature

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