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Q1 APUSH key terms and people Ch. ONE
Terms in this set (31)
First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level.
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute. They came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
The term commonly describes those societies in which political legitimacy and authority overlay a large degree of cultural commonality.
Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as twenty-five thousand Native Americans.
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 C.E.; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to Muslim middlemen.
Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey.
Large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South.
The transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.
Spanish government's policy to "commend," or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
"Sad night," when the Aztecs attacked Hernán Cortés and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán, killing hundreds. Cortés laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the fall of the Aztec empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule.
Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition to capitalism.
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico.
Sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires.
Battle of Acoma
Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Oñate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609.
Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico.
False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Spanish monarch who, along with his wife Isabella of Castile, funded Christopher Columbus's voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, which led to his discovery of the West Indies.
Isabella of Castile
Spanish monarch who, along with her husband Ferdinand of Aragon, funded Christopher Columbus's voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, which led to his discovery of the West Indies.
Genoese explorer who stumbled upon the West Indies in 1492 while in search of a new water route to Asia. Columbus made three subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and briefly served as a colonial administrator on the island of Hispaniola, present-day Haiti.
Spanish explorer who ventured from western Mexico through present-day Arizona and up to Kansas in search of fabled golden cities.
Spanish conquistador who crushed the Incas in 1532 and founded the city of Lima, Peru.
Reform-minded Spanish missionary who worked to abolish the encomienda system and documented the mistreatment of Indians in the Spanish colonies.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain.
Indian slave who served as an interpreter for Hernán Cortés on his conquest of the Aztecs. Malinche later married one of Cortés's soldiers, who took her with him back to Spain.
Last of the Aztec rulers, who saw his powerful empire crumble under the force of the Spanish invasion led by Hernán Cortés.
Italian explorer sent by England's King Henry VII to explore the northeastern coast of North America in 1497 and 1498.
French explorer who led an expedition down the Mississippi River in the 1680s.
Franciscan priest who established a chain of missions along the California coast, beginning in San Diego in 1769, with the aim of Christianizing and civilizing native peoples.
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Q1 APUSH key terms and people Ch. TWO
Q1 APUSH key terms and people Ch. THREE
Q1 APUSH key terms and people Ch. FOUR
Q1 APUSH key terms and people Ch. FIVE