Terms in this set (62)
what is not considered a fossil fuel?
Fossil fuels currently supply about ____ percent of all world commercial energy supplies.
Which of the following energy sources does not contribute to the greenhouse effect?
Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland have higher standards of living by most measures than Americans or Canadians
even though their energy use is much less than ours.
Black lung disease results from
coal dust causing inflammation and fibrosis in lungs
Under normal operating conditions _______________ power plants release radioactivity as well as toxic metals.
The main pollutant released by coal burning is
Most useful oil deposits are usually found
saturating porous rocks, like water in a sponge.
Oil wells are usually able to extract ______ of the petroleum present in an oil reservoir.
Secondary recovery techniques are ways to
force more oil out of a drying well.
For much of the past decade battles have been going on over oil and gas drilling in
the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Oil shale and tar sands are examples of ________ oil.
Natural gas is the _______ source of commercial energy worldwide.
Unconventional gas sources are sources of natural gas
produced from the digestion of organic matter
With respect to natural gas, many developing countries
cannot afford to build the pipes needed to transport this fuel.
Methane from animal waste is an example of a(n)
by-product of human activities. unconventional gas resource.
Interest in nuclear power as a major world energy source
was strong in the 1950s but has since faded.
The fuel used in a conventional PWR or BWR nuclear power plants is
A notable factor in the Chernobyl disaster was that Soviet authorities
failed to respond immediately, unnecessarily endangering many lives.
Uranium fuel is ____________ before it can be put into a reactor.
extensively processed to clean and purify it
A fuel assembly in a nuclear power plant consists of
about one hundred pellet-filled rods bundled together.
Nuclear fission occurs when a high-energy subatomic particle, a neutron, strikes a uranium atom, releases energy and
Control rods in a nuclear reactor are used to
The most likely disaster in a nuclear power plant is that
cooling systems could fail, causing rapid overheating.
Most nuclear plants in the United States use _________ to cool fuel rods and run turbines.
pressurized water and steam
A breeder reactor is designed to
create fissionable plutonium from spent fission reactor fuel.
The liquid sodium that must be used to cool a breeder reactor
is highly corrosive. None of these. burns intensely when exposed to oxygen. is explosive in contact with water.
Nuclear waste storage in the United States is handled
in temporary storage at individual plants.
Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is the site of a
proposed national nuclear waste repository.
Nuclear fusion is a ____________ technology.
ideal but so far unachievable
Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute estimated that raising the efficiency of the US car and light truck fleet by _____ mile(s) per gallon would cut oil consumption by about 295,000 barrels a day.
Superinsulated houses built now in Sweden use ___ percent of the energy used by a modern American home.
Energy efficiency is a measure of
energy produced compared to energy consumed.
Net energy yield differs from energy efficiency in that net yield takes into account
lifetime energy costs of equipment, infrastructure, and disposal.
Net energy yield is a good way to assess efficiency of nuclear power because
fuel production, transport, construction, and waste disposal consume vast amounts of energy.
The idea of cogeneration is to actively use ________ electricity generating plants.
both electricity and waste steam heat from
How does eating locally grown food in season save energy?
Locally grown food does not need to be transported far distances.
A glass greenhouse on the south side of a building is an example of
passive heat absorption.
A system of pipes painted black that have water circulating on the wall in a glass greenhouse on the south side of a building is an example of
an active solar heating system.
wat solar energy use has been used by people for thousands of years?
Passive heat absorption
Active solar energy systems involve
pumps and moving fluids.
Eutectic chemicals release heat when they
Parabolic mirrors ________ sunlight on a collecting medium.
The most effective technology developed so far to produce solar energy concentrated enough to run an industrial furnace or turbine is to use
The two greatest energy users in the average American home are
the furnace and water heater.
Photovoltaic cells work because solar energy striking their surface
releases electrons, causing an electric potential in attached wires.
Photovoltaic electricity costs are __________ coal or nuclear-powered electricity.
likely to be cheaper in the near future than
Renewable energy makes up about 18 percent of total world energy use with biomass making up ____ of that supply
Plants store solar energy by
creating the chemical bonds of sugar molecules.
Which of the following is normally considered a biomass fuel?
waste wood chips wood peat ethanol
Since fuelwood is their primary source of energy for cooking, many people living in the cities of less-developed countries
spend about a quarter of their household income on buying fuelwood.
In the United States and Canada, the most common problem with using wood as a major heat source is
the production of pollutants.
Manure or dung makes a good fuel except that it is
needed to rebuild soil
Burning methane from dung
is more efficient than burning the dung directly. allows the dung to also be used as a fertilizer. provides more heat than burning the dung directly.
Since the 1920s, hydropower production has
risen, but not as fast as fossil fuel use.
The total world production of hydropower is currently equal to ___ percent of the total world potential
Siltation and decreased water quality are especially significant problems with
huge dams on major rivers.
Some highly efficient turbines can be submerged directly in a river and require only _______ to operate.
The world's largest wind power producers are
the United States and Denmark.
Geothermal energy uses ________ to produce usable heat or electricity.
naturally occurring hot groundwater
Tidal power stations operate by using
turbines that spin in the flow of tide water.
Ocean thermal electric conversion systems would operate best in
warm, deep tropical seas
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