Unit 4: Solids and Liquids
Terms in this set (78)
forces of attraction between neighboring particles
Are intermolecular forces weaker or stronger than bonding forces?
state of matter, change in state, some physical properties
What three things are intermolecular forces responsible for?
London Dispersion forces, Dipole-dipole forces, Hydrogen bonds
Three types of intermolecular forces?
london dispersion force
the intermolecular attraction resulting from the uneven distribution of electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles
Are london dispersion forces found in polar or nonpolar compounds?
In london dispersion forces, molecules and atoms will lose their __________ shape
_____ compact molecules have smaller surface areas, weaker London dispersion forces, and lower boiling points.
Flatter, _____ compact molecules have larger surface areas, stronger London dispersion forces, and higher boiling points.
attraction between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
For molecules of about the same size, dipole forces increase with increasing __________
Dipole-dipole forces are only effective when polar molecules are very ______ together
If two neutral molecules, each having a permanent dipole moment, come together such that their oppositely charged ends align, they will be ___________ to each other.
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule with at least one lone pair of electrons
Hydrogen has no inner core of electrons, so a dipole will expose its concentrated charge on the proton, its ________
__________ can approach an electronegative atom very closely and interact strongly with it
Electron shell around a hydrogen atom is rather thin, giving the hydrogen atom a small _________ charge
Electron shell round an oxygen atom is quite thick, and so oxygen carries an extra bit of __________ charge
the ability to flow
Which or denser: liquids or gases?
liquids are only slightly ____________; not a discernible difference when it happened
Liquids can diffuse through one another, but at a much _________ rate than gases
the resistance to flow
intermolecular, particle, temperature
Viscosity is determined by the type of ____________ forces involved, the shape of the _________, and the
The _________ the attractive forces, the higher the viscosity
The ________ the particles, the higher the viscosity
Viscosity increases as temperature ___________
the imbalance of forces at the surface of a liquid; the uneven forces make the surface behave as if it has a tight film stretched across it
The ___________ the intermolecular forces, the higher the surface tension
compounds that lower the surface tension of water; frequently added to detergents
movement of a liquid through narrow spaces
Solids have extremely _______ intermolecular forces in order for solids to have definite shape and volume
Which has a higher density: solids or liquids?
What is the one exception to the solid density rule? This substance expands when it freezes because of the way the particles arrange themselves during the freezing process
Two different types of solids
molecular, covalent network, ionic, metallic
Four different types of crystalline solids
Type of solid that has atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in an orderly, geometric, 3-D structure
individual pieces of a crystalline solid are called
Smallest arrangement of connected points that can be repeated in 3 directions to form a lattice is called a
There are _______ different crystal systems based on shape of crystalline solids
type of crystalline solid where the individual molecules in the crystal lattice are held together by London forces, dipole-dipole attractions or hydrogen bonding
Are most molecular solids solid at room temperature?
Molecular solids are ______ conductors of heat and electricity
type of crystalline solid where atoms can form multiple bonds and form a network of atoms that do not have a
unit cell; most allotropes exist in this form
forms of the same element that have different bonding patterns of arrangement
type of crystalline solid where the type and ratio of ions determine the structure of the lattice and the shape of the structure; the network of attractions that extend through an ionic compound gives these compounds their high melting points and hardness
strong, crystal, poor
ionic solids are ________ but brittle; when struck, cations and anions are shifted, which causes repulsion that in turn shatter the ________; ______ conductors of heat and electricity in solid form
type of crystalline solid that consists of positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons
malleable, ductile, good
metallic solids have mobile electrons make metals ___________, __________, and ______ conductors of heat and electricity
A series of metals atoms that have all donated their valence electrons to an electron cloud that permeates the structure is referred to as the
type of solid in which the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern, but still retain rigidity; particles are trapped in a disordered arrangement that is characteristic of liquids
phase changes always involve a change in ________; needed either to overcome or form attractive forces between particles
change from solid to liquid
change from liquid to solid
Melting point/freezing point: temp at which solid and liquid forms exist in _____________
change from liquid to gas
two types of vaporization
type of vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid
Rate of evaporation increases as temperature
type of vaporization that occurs within the liquid
temperature at which vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure
If vapor pressure is _____ than atmospheric pressure, bubbles do not form
change from gas to liquid
change from solid to gas
change from gas to solid
graphic illustrations of phase changes
In heating curves, ____________ remains constant during phase changes while amount of _______ varies
diagram that relates the states of a substance to temp and pressure
the temperature and pressure when all three states exist at the same time
the temperature above which a substance will always be a gas regardless of the pressure.
the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid