Terms in this set (73)
An alliance first formed in 1879 under Bismarck. In it, Germany and Austria-Hungary each promised aid in case of an attack from Russia on either nation. They also pledged "benevolent neutrality" in the case of war with another nation. It ultimately became a key piece of the Triple Alliance.
was a Russian diplomat, who served as ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1884 to 1902.
A letter from United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, in 1917 promising British aid in the establishment of a Jewish State in the territory of Palestine.
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
Fought in 1918 in France. One of the first major battles in which the US participated. A secret attack, largely in cooperation with the French, resulted in a significant Allied victory.
Battle of Jutland
Fought in 1916 off the shore of Denmark. It was the only significant naval battle in WWI and it involved the German and British fleets. Britain lost more ships and more men than Germany, but the battle was ultimately a British victory, as it asserted their dominance over the seas.
Battle of Marne
Fought in 1914 at the Marne River near Paris, France. It was a significant allied victory, utilizing both French and British troops. The battle made a quick German victory on the Eastern Front impossible and thus set up years of trench warfare in Eastern Europe.
Battle of the Somme
Fought in 1916 on both sides of the Somme River in France. It was an Allied counterattack after the Germans pushed the majority of their troops into the Battle of Verdun. On the first day, over 60,000 British died. It was the first use of tanks, but they were seen as ineffective. The battle was a total stalemate, yet there were over 1.1 million casualties.
Battle of Verdun
Fought in 1916 in the hills of Verdun in France. The Germans attacked the French with a huge force. The Allies were outnumbered because they were preparing for an attack at the Somme. The French were victorious, but each side lost between 330,000 and 350,000 men.
In 1876 warned the Ottomans that if they continued to suppress the Balkans, Russia would attack on behalf of the Three Emperor's League. Its goal was to address the Eastern Question of 1875-1878 concerning Ottoman territory and actions in the Balkans.
The first Chancellor of Germany, serving from 1871-1890 under the monarchs Wilhelm I, Friedrich III, and Wilhelm II. Used the principle of Realpolitik and was largely accredited with creating the system of European alliances that ultimately caused WWI.
Refers to Germany's support of Austria after the Archduke was assassinated. Germany told their ally they could take whichever actions they felt suitable to address the situation knowing that Germany would support them.
Also known as the first Transvaal war. Great Britain annexed the Transvaal region in Africa in 1877, which led to the people of the region, the Boers, fighting for their independence from the British. The British were defeated and the region regained its independence.
Bulgarian Crisis 1885
A conflict between Serbia and Bulgaria, which demonstrated the instability of the Balkan peace settlement imposed by the Congress of Berlin. Both countries felt they should've been awarded more land by the settlement.
A narrow protrusion of Namibia. This area was part of German South West Africa during 1884-1919, the strip was ceded by Britain to give the German colony access to the Zambezi. After World War I, the strip became part of South West Africa/Namibia.
A term used to refer to any "just cause" a country might cite as reasoning for going to war.
One of the main factions during WW1 consisting of Austria - Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.
One of the primary concepts of the League of Nations. This system would ensure that all members of the League would defend the safety of each other member and vice versa.
Colonel T. E. Lawrence
A British army officer known for his role in the Arab Revolution against Ottoman Turkish rule. After WWI he worked for the foreign office, and attended the Paris Peace Conference as a member of Prince Faisal's (arab) delegate.
Congress of Berlin
A meeting of the leading statesmen of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire (led by Bismarck) , in Berlin in 1878. In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War, the meeting's aim was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans.
Refers to goods that during WWI were considered to be used for war aims (ie metal, ammunition, etc.) Great Britain stopped all ships so that they could prevent any of these goods going to Germany.
A group of ships travelling together for protection. These were used to lessen the impact of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare.
Count Vladirmir Lamsdorf
Served as the Prime Minister of the Russian Empire from 1900- 1906, a crucial period which included the Russo-Japanese War and the Russian Revolution of 1905.
A record written in January 1907 by British Official Eyre Crowe detailing the relations between Great Britain, France and Germany.
A series of agreements signed on April 8, 1904 between Great Britain and France that initiated the alliance against Germany and Austria Hungary.
A key French military commander. He was named commander of the XX Army Corps at the start of World War I. He helped secure victory at the First Battle of The Marne and was eventually named a British field marshal and marshal of Poland.
First Balkan War
Lasted from October 1912 to May 1913. It comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire and resulted in the victory of the Balkan states.
Lasted from July 19, 1870 to May 10, 1871. The coalition of German states, led by Prussia, defeated France. This war marked the end of French dominance in continental Europe and led to the unification of Germany.
A military alliance between France and Russia that ran from 1892 to 1917. The alliance ended the isolation of France.
He conquered territories in Central Asia for the Russian Empire and became the first Governor-General of Russian Turkestan.
A Prussian-German field marshal, statesman and Politian who served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934.
A British businessman, social reformer, ardent imperialist and constructive radical who supported ideas associated with tariff reform and imperial unity.
A temporary government set up after a collapse of the large government before that.
A false crisis. False crisis of the financial situation in London after people realized a war was on the horizon. Wartime controls over the financial crisis resolution.
A system of governing that focuses on the real world rather than ideologies to make foreign policy decisions.
(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over dominance in Korea and Manchuria. Japan won, marking the first time an Asian power had defeated a European power.
Second Balkan War
(June 1913) Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece because of unhappiness over the first Balkan war.
Second Moroccan Crisis
(1911) French troops occupy the city of Fez, which maddened the Germans. Britain backed France, as did Russia, Austria-Hungary failed to support Germany, and Germany backed down.
Second Three Emperor's League
League between Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia in order to keep France isolated. Goal of the league was to keep peace between Austria-Hungary/Russia and France/Germany.
Secret Treaty of London
(1915) Secret alliance between the triple entente (Russia, Britain, France) and Italy. Italy was to join the trip entente after WWI in exchange for land after the war was over.
Foreign policy used by Great Britain before WWI. Meant minimal involvement of European affairs. Came out of isolation because of German submarine warfare.
German submarines patrolled waters near Great Britain and took down unauthorized ships. Led to the sinking of the Lusitania and angering of America.
Kaiser William II
Emperor of Germany 1888-1918. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890 and altered German foreign policy to Welpolitik. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia (Reinsurance treaty) and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
1896 William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. The telegram was taken to mean that the Kaiser endorsed the Transvaal's independence in what was seen by the British as their sphere of influence. This telegram inflamed tensions between Germany and Britain.
London Conference 1913
A peace conference called to sort out territorial adjustments arising from the conclusion of the First Balkan War. Consisted of Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy and Russia. The Treaty of London arose from this conference that served to divide Balkan territory.
The Deputy Chief of Staff to the German Second Army general during WWI. In September of 1919 he realized that Germany could not win the war and urged kaiser that a new government be based on democratic principles.
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, provoking the United States to enter the war.
German military leader who led the Allied Victory in the Battle of Marne. Also proposed a two front war where Germany would fight defensively on both sides until peace could be made with one side. Moltke Plan was replaced with Schlieffen Plan that supported two side victory.
Tsar of Russia (1825-1855). Known for expansionist policies and Russia's defeat in the Crimean War.
Last tsar of Russia (1894-1917). Under his rule, Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War. Approved the mobilization of Russia against Austria in 1914 which also involved the mobilization against Germany. Rasputin was alleged for influencing this Tsar. Abdicated the thrown after the February revolution in 1917.
A feeling of cultural and ethnic kinship among the Slavic people that the empire hoped would weaken Austria-Hungary's hold in the Balkans. Supported by both Russian Empire and Soviet Union.
1905. After the Entente Cordiale of 1904, Germnay felt encircled by France and Britain. Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted to test the relationship between Britain and France by sending a war ship to Morocco in support of Moroccan Independence. Following the Crisis, The Algeciras Conference of 1906 were Great Britain backed French claims in Morocco.
Alfred von Schlieffen
Served as the Chief of Imperial German General staff from 1891-1906. He was most known for his plan for German armies to fight a decisive and one-front war against the French.
Occurred in 1906 from January to April to resolve the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905. GB backs French claims in Morocco and Britain and France become closer in 1907 in the Triple Entente.
The territory created by the German Empire following their victory in the Franco-Prussian war. France wanted to reclaim this territory from Germany after WWI.
Anglo French Naval Treaty of 1912
After the Second Moroccan Crisis, it became clear to British ministers that Britain would have to put aside its traditional reluctance and cooperate with France. The Anglo-French Naval Convention would essentially give the French navy responsibility for guarding the Mediterranean, allowing Britain to concentrate its naval power in the North Sea against Germany.
Anglo Russian Entente of 1907
Signed in 1907, this brought solidified boundaries to indicative control over Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
The archduke of Austria and heir to the Austro Hungarian throne until his death in 1896.
Oversaw the Entente Cordiale (agreement with France that encouraged Britain to join WWI.) He was also the Foreign Secretary during Lloyd George's administration. He promised the Jewish people a national home in the Middle East.
State Secretary of Foreign Affairs of German Empire from 1916-1917. Sent the infamous telegram to Mexican Embassy to give directions to German ambassador in Mexico to tell them attack the US and in return that Germany would give them the southwestern states back.
The department of Russia's foreign policy that dealt the Far East, the Ottomans and Balkans.
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Occurred on June 28, 1914, this leader of Austria and his wife were killed in Saravejo by the group of assassins known as the Black Hand. This led to the chain of events that eventually triggered WWI.
Given to Serbia after assassination of the archduke in 1914, in which the Serbian government would have to accept an Austro-Hungarian inquiry into the assassination, suppress all anti-Austrian propaganda and to take steps to root out and eliminate terrorist organizations within its borders. Serbia had 48 hours to respond to these requests. They accepted all but one.
The Eastern Question
The historical question of what to do with the Ottoman Empire and other territories in Eastern Europe. When it comes to Germany, Germany wanted to know what to do with the Ottoman Empire and they became involved in the re-organization of the Empire, while simultaneously pulling away form Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan
A major military strategy devised by the German Military. The plan was to quickly destroy France and then move on to Russia in order to reduce the risk of fighting a two front war. France was stronger than the Germans had originally thought causing the plan to fail.
Three Emperors League
An alliance between Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary from 1873-1887. Otto Van Bismarck wanted security in the way of an alliance system and thus the three emperors of these nations created an alliance. The goal was to have control of the Balkans and Eastern Europe.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A peace treaty signed in March of 1918. The treaty was between the new Bolshevik government of Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I.
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in 1878. This treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War and gave the country of Bulgaria independence.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
One of the major reasons the United States entered WWI. The German military was using their submarines to attack ships, regardless of their nature. The United States was upset with this campaign and when Germany announced they would pursue this the United States felt they needed to get involved.
War Industries Board
Established in July of 1917, this was created by the United States to aid in the organization and trade of war supplies.
A militarized form of socialism that was found in Germany during World War One. This type of "socialism" was complete militarized control over the entire economy.
The goal of this foreign policy decision was the transition of Germany into a global power through aggressive policies, territorial acquisitions and the creation of a large navy. This was mainly employed by Kaiser Wilhelm II.
This was a telegram that was sent by Germany to Mexico that was intercepted by the United States Government. The telegram said that if Mexico were to attack the United States and attempt to take back the territory it had lost, Germany would back Mexico. This was a major reason the United States joined the war.
Referring to wanting to keep a balance of power in Europe
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