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George Gazda

formed ASGW Assoc. for Specialists in Group Work (division of ACA) (1970s)
group leadership influences members/aggressive leaders= group casualitiesdevelpmtal group counseling to teach basic life skills (1980s)

definition of a group

collection of 2 or more individuals
meet in face2face interaction
awareness of belonging to group
purpose to achieve mutually agreed-on goals

group work

to reach their mutual goals, which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work related.
The goals of the group may include:
the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.

Purpose of group before 1900s

primarily to distribute information to immigrants, poor, & those mental challenges

moral therapy

philosophy of treatment that emphasized treating mentally ill people with compassion and understanding, rather than shackling them in chains (before 1900s)

Jane Addams

social worker and leader in the settlement house movement; she founded Hull House in 1889 (Forerunner to T-groups) which helped improve the lives of poor immigrants in Chicago, used to help them understand selves & environment. Now is known as group social work

Joseph Pratt

Boston physician, formed the first formal not education/task but counseling/therapy group 1905-1923; formed group with issues of tuberculosis

Jesse Davis

the principal of Grand Rapids High School in Michigan designed 1st children's group to stress the funtionality of a group as an environment in which students learn life skills, values, & citizenship. 1907

Army Alpha and Beta intelligence test

psychological group test (1909-1919)
groups were used to treat fatigued soldier

J. M. Levy

actually Jacob Moreno published paper on group methods under that name, stressed the psychoanalytic/social psychological perspectives of individuals working together

collective counseling

Adler (1920) child guidance group in Vienna, group approach to understand child's problem were related to family issues

Jacob Moreno

WWII produced shortage of counselors in US hence term 'group therapy' & 'group psychotherapy' (1931),
father of psychodrama (1920s), found that individuals involved in theatric productions w/o scripts (role-play) had cathartic reaction (curative): "act out feelings"
founder, American Society of Group Psychotherapy & Psychodrama (ASGPP) (1940s)


Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) formed
group guidance & educational publications increased
"guidance hour" in schools to establish friendly relationships, discover needs & abilities, & develop right attitude toward home, school, & community
group work recognized as a specialty


Trigant Burrow (leader) studied how social forces affect behavior, stressing biological & interactive principles of group behavior (phylo) (1930s)
beginning of psychoanalytic group therapy

Samuel Slavson

Originally an engineer, but eventually developed group therapy using play therapy.
Founder of American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA)

Kurt Lewin

Is credited with the term 'group dynamics'
his approach field theory ( interaction btwn individuals & their environment) interested in what motivated individuals. (1940s)
help establish basic skills training group which evolved to T-groups (training groups)
applied feedback to group work
Gestalt psychologists "here & now"
group discussions superior to individual instruction for changing people's ideas & behavior

Wilfred Bion

focused on group cohesiveness and group dynamics that promoted the progression of a group.
broke away from Freud such as family is basic group
characterized emotional patterns as work group "W" or basic assumption "BA" anti-work group (1940s)

Rudolph Dreikurs

Adler's student, first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice; also introduced Adlerian principals to the treatment of children - parent groups

John Bell

treated family as strangers in group therapy
open discussion to solve family problem

Virginia Satir

was often empathic with the family. She identified five styles of relating with a family. To explore relationships within the family, she used techniques such as family sculpting and taking a family life chronology. (1950s)

Nathan Ackerman

The theory of psychodynamic family counseling, was concerned with the internal feelings and thoughts of each individual as well as the dynamics between then. Prior to Ackerman, it was considered inappropriate to include family members in analytic treatment sessions.
cure dysfunction (1950s)

Gregory Bateson

known for seeing families in similar ways to machines

encounter groups

Carl Rogers personal growth groups emphasizes personal development (1970s)
also sensitivity group focuses on individual's awareness of emotions & behavior of others

total quality group

work groups in Japan to address quality issues (1950s)

marathon group

help individuals to become more honest, real, genuine w/self George Bach & Fred Stoller (1960s)

Esalen Institute

Institute established in the 1960s to explore human potential Fritz Perls - Gestalt therapy in group setting

Eric Berne

father of Transactional Analysis (TA) - who put Freud in everyday lingo with Parent ego [Superego], filled with shoulds, oughts, and musts to guide morality. (1960s)

William Schutz

illustrated through group work those individuals can take care of their interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection through groups and stressed the use of nonverbal communication such as touching or hugging in groups. (1960s)

Jack Gibb

studied competitive & cooperative behaviors as contagious in groups; behavior in 1 sparks behavior in others (1960s)

Yalom 11 Curative Factors (1971)

-Imparting information
-Installation of hope
-Corrective reenactment
-Development of social interaction techniques
-Imitative behaviors
-Interpersonal learning
-Existential factors
-Group cohesion


Irving Janis created the term to emphasize the detrimental power that groups may exert over member to force them to conform (1971)

general (group) system theory

James Durkin (1980s) examines how circular causality (systemically) as opposed to linear causality (cause &effect) can be used in groups

Decade of Ethics

1980s Code of Ethics drafted & formed then revised in 1989

dialectic behavior therapy

Marsha Linehan (1990s) CBT therapy involves skills training in problem-solving techniques, emotional regulation, and interpersonal skills; relatively new treatment for borderline personality disorder and related conditions involving dysregulation and impulsivity

cooperative learning groups

a method of instruction that has students working together in groups, usually with the goal of completing a specific task. (1990s)

focus groups

small groups of people (representative sample) brought together to talk about issues or candidates. (1990s) Too small to provide estimates of public opinion, but they are useful for testing the appeal of ads, terms, slogans, ect.

group leader training

focus on intentional modeling
identifying critical incidents for members
examining event & member reaction
deriving meaning & self-understanding from events
applying new understanding towards personal change

3 primary contact groups

group guidance: preventive & growth engendering
group counseling: preventive, growth, & remedial
group psychotherapy: remedial
Gazda states group move on continuum

TRAC model

delineates group process & management and types of specialty groups
nature of management (x-axis): facilitation to leadership
nature of group process (y-axis): task achievement to process enhancement

TRAC model quadrants

Contacting: process & catalytic function
Acquiring: access & expansion of info and awareness
Relating: restructure/rehearsal new behavior
Tasking: control, efficiency, achievement

Johari Window

A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas.

Johari Window Quadrants

I. Open: info known to self & others
II. Hidden: info known to self & not others
III. Blind: unknown to self & know by others
IV. Unknown: unknown to self & others

psychoeducation groups

education is treatment & perceptions may change
these groups provide education and skill building for growth and prevention, management, and remediation of problems.
structured by central theme/particular population
used in schools & community and by social services, mental health agencies, and universities,

counseling groups

focus on interpersonal process and problem-solving strategies that stress conscious thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
remedial, mild, & situational problems
outcome: growth & development, self-awareness
leader emphasizes "here & now" and encourages growth, helps set goals & create plan to obtain

psychotherapy group

It is depth-oriented remedial and rehabilitative for more serious problems. It is supportive, reconstructive, involves depth analysis, is analytical, focuses on the unconsious, emphasis on neurotics and serve emotional problems, and is long term.
reconstruct personality or character of members
lead by a professional with advanced training.

personal growth group

sometimes referred to as support groups, aim to help members cope with particular difficulties.
developmental issues that arise in transitions
less focused on personality of individuals
short-term and intensive for personal growth
leader technique increase open communication, increase emotional experience and self-awareness

self-help group

Leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, voluntary groups of people who share the same problem (overheating, gambling, drug addiction, etc)
- Members meet regularly, often with a therapist present to:
- Discuss problems
- Share solutions
- Give and receive support (ex: Alcoholics Anonymous)

task facilitation group

focuses on training & consciousness raising
help members develop skills to interact effectively w/ others in task-oriented interpersonal settings
leader techniques to increase self-awareness as it relates to sensitivity to others improve functioning
tasks center around problem-solving & decision making

closed group

Shuts its gates after the start of therapy (or after 1-3 sessions). Often these groups are brief therapy groups. Meet weekly for 6 month or less. Long term closed groups mostly in prisons, etc.
promotes cohesiveness

open group

New members can join after the group begins, allows for more group stability. Disadvantage is groups members that are added late miss some information or experiences.

ideal length of session

1.5 hours, even if critical issues being discussed (for adults). Longer than this people lose attention span/fatigue group members. Children's groups should be shorter and meet more frequently (1hr)

ideal size of group

6-8 members, could be less with elementary aged children (3-4)

group dynamics

the forces operating in groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one another. the process through which inputs are translated into outputs, influences individual behavior.
Lewin thought that many factors contribute to it

ideal group duration

6-16 sessions (shorter for children)

group content

information within and purpose of the group

group process

Refers to interaction (verbal & non-verbal) between the group members. Also includes the different roles that people assume in a group.
As the group develops more time is spent on process than content.

7 types of group processes

contagion, conflict , anxiety, consensual validation, universality, family reenactment, instillation of hope


an emotional/physical reaction from the group, one member cries other members cry, the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people


all groups experience it; depends on how leader handle it makes a difference

consensual validation

checking one's behavior with others; done by questioning, confronting, & affirming individually or with a group


two or more members develop a group within a group

factors in preplanning a group

• clarifying of purpose: what is the group to accomplish
• group setting: an environment that's quiet, comfortable
•time & size: how long & how many
•membership: heterogeneous or homogeneous
•goals: expected or planned outcomes
•commitment: voluntary or mandatory
•openness: consideration of new ideas & actions
•risk taking: willingness to engage new thoughts & behaviors
•attitudes: how members & leaders perceive tasks & others

content questions

• What do we have to do?
• What do we need to do to accomplish our goals? *warm-up

process questions

• Who am I?
• Who am I with you? *warm-up
• Who are we together? *action

system terms

• Differentiating: taking care of their needs by themselves
• Integrating: doing things with others
members constantly deciding to between the two. leader helps members balance between them.

group structure

• refers to both the physical setup of a group as well as the interaction of each group member in relation to the group as a whole
physical structure should be practical (circle, chain, wheel, Y, theatre style)

group exercises

promote a positive atmosphere, used as a catalyst to activate groups, encourage members to take risk, provide learning to move group, help or shift focus, increase risk taking, increase comfortability
timing & instruction are everything

Theatre of Spontaneity

1st step into psychodrama

types of group exercises

verbal interpersonal activities - introducing oneself to the group and answering questions
non-verbal interpersonal - "changing seats"—asking select members or an entire group to change seats
Intrapersonal activities: an exercise is done alone at first and then shared and explored with others at a later time
verbal intrapersonal - draw a picture & share
non-verbal intrapersonal - body relaxation techniques

group interaction

the way members relate to one another
•consists of nonverbal and verbal behaviors and the attitudes that go with them.
•The meaning of nonverbal behaviors cannot be assumed
• on a continuum, from extremely nondirective to highly directive
track who speaks to whom & how often member speaks, observe silence

member's role

• "a dynamic structure within an individual (based on needs, cognitions, and values), which usually comes to life under the influence of social stimuli or defined positions" (Munich & Astrachan, 1983, p. 20).
manifestation based on that individual's expectation of self and others and the interaction one has in particular groups and situations
roles do not define overall identity of individual; though, they influence how they act

facilitative/building role

adds to the functioning of the group in a positive way. initiators in the group

maintenance role

relationship building group behavior. Supportive, and constructive interpersonal relationships, helps balance

blocking role

behavior that inhibits either team performance or that of individual members; anti group/outsider

role collision

conflict between the role and individual plays in the ouside world and the one experienced with the group ex. an active participant

Role incompatibility

member is given a role within the group that s/he does not want or is comfortable with

Role confusion/ambiguity

member does not know what role to perform; this usually happens in a leaderless group

Role transition

member expected to move from one role to another as the group progresses and individual doesn't feel comfortable doing so

Irvin Yalom

the first specialists in group work to delineate positive primary group variables based on research he conducted with others on therapy groups.
positive variables = 11 curative factors


study of group relationships

Yalom's negative group variables

•avoiding conflict: silencing those who disagree w/group
•abdicating group responsibilities: takes no responsibility & place all on leader
•psychic numbing: anesthetizing to contradictions within the group
•becoming narcissistic: encouraging cohesiveness w/ hatred

ways to learn group dynamics

• Videotaping
• Journaling
• Outdoor experiences
• Simulation games for team building
• Sociometrics
• Learning integration

3 basic styles of group leadership (Lewin)

authoritarian, democratic, & laissez-faire

authoritarian leader

Theory X - leader is the expert, tends to be rigid & conventional in their beliefs, controlling
structure: wheel b/c leader centered group
emphasis on personality of one giving that person much power & trust (leader-centered)
good during crisis or chaos

democratic leader

Theory Y - trust members to develop their own potential & others
cooperate, collaborate, & share power w/ members
self-awareness & develop the guru within (Rogers)
good for openness & establishing trust

laissez-faire leader

leader does not provide structure or direction for group. group-centered focusing on members & interpersonal processes.
slow to establish agenda & set goals
used to decrease intimidation, increase like ability
usually leads to no accomplishment

Theory Z leader

leader that encourage members to participate & trust members to meet individual and collective goals thru interaction

leaderless group

group for mutual support, usually end creating some leadership style that is comfortable to the group

group leader skills different from individual

facilitating: open up communication
protecting: protect member for attack of other members
blocking: stop counterproductive behavior


intervention used to connect one member to one or more other members. connecting persons with one another by pointing out to them what they share in common.


leader identifies certain behaviors & categorizes it. based on leader observation (for example, observation of group blaming instead of productive). leader looks for ways to overcome these behaviors

reality testing

member has to make a major decision. other members give input to the member


designed to get potentially productive feedback from a group member. member gave negative feedback to the member; leader tries to persuade member to restate feedback constructively


leader gives members task like observing or maybe leading - to share responsibility.


insight, meaning, & synergy occur with it. leaders should be skilled in divergent in ways of thinking & behaving.

group leader roles

traffic director: make members aware of behaviors that promote or inhibit communication
modeler of appropriate behavior:
interactional catalyst: promote interaction w/o saying it (ex. may look at member when needs to respond)
communicator facilitator: leader reflect feelings & content

withdrawal from conflict

leader distance from conflict & postpones interventions. good for further observation to collect data w/o becoming overly involved. help to avoid taking sides
disadv: conflict may escalate & ineffective in dealing with crisis

suppressing conflict

down play conflict when issues are minor & unimportant and relationship is more important.
disadv: doesn't resolve issue & feeling may erupt later
leader may be seen as weak or insensitive

integrating conflict

consensus is the idea; get all members to reexamine a situation & identify points of agreement. (ex. mediation -3rd party hears conflict & render decision)
increase group commitment
disadv: very timely to implement & resistance of members set aside own goals for the group

use of compromise to resolve conflict

giving up a little to avoid conflict. win-win in cooperative behavior & collaborative efforts.
good when resources are limited & members are flexible (ex. negotiation)
disadv: individuals may inflate wants for larger gain & final outcome may ineffective or less desirable

use of power to resolve conflict

imposition of one will over another. power is based on status or personality. position power (immature relationships) personal power (mature relationship) individual uses ability to persuade.
good to solve problems quickly (limited time) and save relationships & alleviate resentment & revenge


Sharing of leadership between two therapists: needed when there are a lot of group members
The goal is to increase observations, knowledge and skills, model effective behaviors
works best they have similar philosophy & group style

advantages of co-leadership

ease of handling difficult situations
use of modeling
feedback from different perspective
helps avoid burnout
shared specialized knowledge
pragmatics: ability to cover for one another

limitations of co-leadership

lack of coordinated efforts
too leader focused
competition between leaders
collusion: co-leader form alliance w/ group member to address disliked qualities of the other leader

types of co-leadership

alternated, shared, apprenticed

cutting off

used to stop members from continuing to ramble & help focus "you seem to be repeating yourself, see if you can make a sentence & let's hear from someone else." making sure that new material is not introduced into the group too late in the session for the group to deal with it adequately

drawing off

directly invites members to comment or give input; used to encourage participation or go deeper "What your thoughts about that"

holding focus

helps members focus on specific topic or person for a length of time. "Let's conclude our focus on risk-taking before we move on"

Tuckman & Jensen stages (5)

Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning

Gazda stages (4)

exploratory, transition, action, termination

Trotzer stages (5)

security, acceptance, responsibility, work, closing

Yalom stages (4)

1. orientation
2. conflict
3. cohesion
4. termination

Corey stages (9)

formation, orientation/exploration, transition, working, consolidation/termination, follow-up/evaluation

Gladding stages (9)

forming/orientation, transition (storming/norming), performing/working, mourning/termination

steps to forming a group

Step 1: Developing a Rationale for the Group
Step 2: Deciding on a Theoretical Format
Step 3: Weighing Practical Considerations
Step 4: Publicizing the Group
Step 5: Screening and Pre-training and
Step 6: Selecting Group Members
Step 7. Selecting a Group Leader

Tasks of beginning a group

Dealing with apprehension: anxiety
Reviewing members' goals and contracts: individual and/or group; restate purpose & have members state goal
Specifying more clearly or reiterating group rules (summarizing): rationale behind each rule
Setting limits
Promoting a positive interchange among members so they will want to continue (Weiner, 1984

screening of group members

essential to screen to determine if the group is right for the individual at the particular time.
prescreening for group:
identify needs, expectations, & commitment
challenge myths & misconceptions
convey information


orienting group members on what to expect of the group before it ever meet

ideal candidate for group

individual who has a specific goal, who has lessen the fears of a group, who are comfortable with their role & surroundings, must be willing to contribute, mature (immature, self-centered, hostile, closed individual are not ideal for group)

heterogeneous vs. homogeneous group

hetero: best for intensive group therapy with focus on personality change
homo: best for support & have focused; task groups

group leader skills - promoting positive interchange

be enthusiastic
drawing out
holding the focus on interesting topics
shifting the focus when irrelevant/uninteresting
cutting off hostile


subtle ways or not so use of feelings & behaviors members use to get what they want. angry & unresolved issues of control
fix: reframing destructive acts in positive way


angry or frustrated & don't wan to participate, act as barriers.
fix: drawing out and/or confront & interpret in a reflective manner


dominates the conversation of the group, not allowing others to participate
fix: cutting off

silent members

sign of hostility or shyness, nonassertive reflecting or delay in assessing feelings.
fix: drawing out, & acceptance by group

users of sarcasm

mask of feelings with smart language; help member express anger more directly & get feedback from other members

opening a group

known as the critical incident in the life of the group general lead, opening statement with purpose, intro exercise...Q&A

beginning a group - structure

promotes group cooperation, decreases anxiety, inclusion, but restrict responsibility & freedom
question is what degree of structure
members look to lead for structure & answers

beginning a group - involvement

structured exercises are creative way to do it. discussing info & specific concerns to the group helps

beginning a group - group cohesion

we-ness, expressive arts best to help; doesn't fully manifest until norming. universality helps also.


the process by which members connect with one another psychologically and physically - icebreakers

clarifying the purpose

Sometimes members unintentionally bring up material that is not appropriate for a beginning session or the overall purpose of the group

transition period

after the forming & before the norming stage (2nd or 3rd session)


members begin to compete with others to find their place in the group, involves struggles over power & control, can be overt (e.g., arguing) and covert (e.g., withdrawal), Associated with a lot of fears

primary tension

awkwardness about being in a strange group

secondary tension

intragroup conflict

quiet storming

form of avoidance of conflict, may get stuck if conflict is avoid or dwelled on. then conflict become destructive.

conflict resolution

views conflict as negative & destructive; focus is to end it

conflict management

conflict can be positive, needs to be direct towards a constructive dialogue. helps overcome resistance, release tension, strengthen relationships

informational power

those who know more or "have information" have power

influential power

based on persuasion or manipulation to influence

authoritative power

influence based on position


behavior that moves the group away from conflict, discomfort, conflict, or potential growth. leader should not react with resistance & defensiveness


use of sophisticated words & thoughts to avoid dealing with personal feelings


using questions to disguise statements "safety net" leader can ask members to make "I" statements and phrase questions as a statement

advice giving

instructing other member on what to do in order to avoid dealing with own issues


misuse of support; overly supportive of others to avoid fully expressing own emotional pain


encourages band-aiders & advice-givers, present themselves as helpless & incapable but will not receive feedback

attack on the leader

most direct form of resistance, contribute to subgrouping, could be justified. leader should address immediately & determine underlying variables in a non defensive, open manner

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