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formed ASGW Assoc. for Specialists in Group Work (division of ACA) (1970s)
group leadership influences members/aggressive leaders= group casualitiesdevelpmtal group counseling to teach basic life skills (1980s)
definition of a group
collection of 2 or more individuals
meet in face2face interaction
awareness of belonging to group
purpose to achieve mutually agreed-on goals
to reach their mutual goals, which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work related.
The goals of the group may include:
the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.
Purpose of group before 1900s
primarily to distribute information to immigrants, poor, & those mental challenges
philosophy of treatment that emphasized treating mentally ill people with compassion and understanding, rather than shackling them in chains (before 1900s)
social worker and leader in the settlement house movement; she founded Hull House in 1889 (Forerunner to T-groups) which helped improve the lives of poor immigrants in Chicago, used to help them understand selves & environment. Now is known as group social work
Boston physician, formed the first formal not education/task but counseling/therapy group 1905-1923; formed group with issues of tuberculosis
the principal of Grand Rapids High School in Michigan designed 1st children's group to stress the funtionality of a group as an environment in which students learn life skills, values, & citizenship. 1907
Army Alpha and Beta intelligence test
psychological group test (1909-1919)
groups were used to treat fatigued soldier
J. M. Levy
actually Jacob Moreno published paper on group methods under that name, stressed the psychoanalytic/social psychological perspectives of individuals working together
Adler (1920) child guidance group in Vienna, group approach to understand child's problem were related to family issues
WWII produced shortage of counselors in US hence term 'group therapy' & 'group psychotherapy' (1931),
father of psychodrama (1920s), found that individuals involved in theatric productions w/o scripts (role-play) had cathartic reaction (curative): "act out feelings"
founder, American Society of Group Psychotherapy & Psychodrama (ASGPP) (1940s)
Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) formed
group guidance & educational publications increased
"guidance hour" in schools to establish friendly relationships, discover needs & abilities, & develop right attitude toward home, school, & community
group work recognized as a specialty
Trigant Burrow (leader) studied how social forces affect behavior, stressing biological & interactive principles of group behavior (phylo) (1930s)
beginning of psychoanalytic group therapy
Originally an engineer, but eventually developed group therapy using play therapy.
Founder of American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA)
Is credited with the term 'group dynamics'
his approach field theory ( interaction btwn individuals & their environment) interested in what motivated individuals. (1940s)
help establish basic skills training group which evolved to T-groups (training groups)
applied feedback to group work
Gestalt psychologists "here & now"
group discussions superior to individual instruction for changing people's ideas & behavior
focused on group cohesiveness and group dynamics that promoted the progression of a group.
broke away from Freud such as family is basic group
characterized emotional patterns as work group "W" or basic assumption "BA" anti-work group (1940s)
Adler's student, first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice; also introduced Adlerian principals to the treatment of children - parent groups
was often empathic with the family. She identified five styles of relating with a family. To explore relationships within the family, she used techniques such as family sculpting and taking a family life chronology. (1950s)
The theory of psychodynamic family counseling, was concerned with the internal feelings and thoughts of each individual as well as the dynamics between then. Prior to Ackerman, it was considered inappropriate to include family members in analytic treatment sessions.
cure dysfunction (1950s)
Carl Rogers personal growth groups emphasizes personal development (1970s)
also sensitivity group focuses on individual's awareness of emotions & behavior of others
help individuals to become more honest, real, genuine w/self George Bach & Fred Stoller (1960s)
Institute established in the 1960s to explore human potential Fritz Perls - Gestalt therapy in group setting
father of Transactional Analysis (TA) - who put Freud in everyday lingo with Parent ego [Superego], filled with shoulds, oughts, and musts to guide morality. (1960s)
illustrated through group work those individuals can take care of their interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection through groups and stressed the use of nonverbal communication such as touching or hugging in groups. (1960s)
studied competitive & cooperative behaviors as contagious in groups; behavior in 1 sparks behavior in others (1960s)
Yalom 11 Curative Factors (1971)
-Installation of hope
-Development of social interaction techniques
Irving Janis created the term to emphasize the detrimental power that groups may exert over member to force them to conform (1971)
general (group) system theory
James Durkin (1980s) examines how circular causality (systemically) as opposed to linear causality (cause &effect) can be used in groups
dialectic behavior therapy
Marsha Linehan (1990s) CBT therapy involves skills training in problem-solving techniques, emotional regulation, and interpersonal skills; relatively new treatment for borderline personality disorder and related conditions involving dysregulation and impulsivity
cooperative learning groups
a method of instruction that has students working together in groups, usually with the goal of completing a specific task. (1990s)
small groups of people (representative sample) brought together to talk about issues or candidates. (1990s) Too small to provide estimates of public opinion, but they are useful for testing the appeal of ads, terms, slogans, ect.
group leader training
focus on intentional modeling
identifying critical incidents for members
examining event & member reaction
deriving meaning & self-understanding from events
applying new understanding towards personal change
3 primary contact groups
group guidance: preventive & growth engendering
group counseling: preventive, growth, & remedial
group psychotherapy: remedial
Gazda states group move on continuum
delineates group process & management and types of specialty groups
nature of management (x-axis): facilitation to leadership
nature of group process (y-axis): task achievement to process enhancement
TRAC model quadrants
Contacting: process & catalytic function
Acquiring: access & expansion of info and awareness
Relating: restructure/rehearsal new behavior
Tasking: control, efficiency, achievement
A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas.
Johari Window Quadrants
I. Open: info known to self & others
II. Hidden: info known to self & not others
III. Blind: unknown to self & know by others
IV. Unknown: unknown to self & others
education is treatment & perceptions may change
these groups provide education and skill building for growth and prevention, management, and remediation of problems.
structured by central theme/particular population
used in schools & community and by social services, mental health agencies, and universities,
focus on interpersonal process and problem-solving strategies that stress conscious thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
remedial, mild, & situational problems
outcome: growth & development, self-awareness
leader emphasizes "here & now" and encourages growth, helps set goals & create plan to obtain
It is depth-oriented remedial and rehabilitative for more serious problems. It is supportive, reconstructive, involves depth analysis, is analytical, focuses on the unconsious, emphasis on neurotics and serve emotional problems, and is long term.
reconstruct personality or character of members
lead by a professional with advanced training.
personal growth group
sometimes referred to as support groups, aim to help members cope with particular difficulties.
developmental issues that arise in transitions
less focused on personality of individuals
short-term and intensive for personal growth
leader technique increase open communication, increase emotional experience and self-awareness
Leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, voluntary groups of people who share the same problem (overheating, gambling, drug addiction, etc)
- Members meet regularly, often with a therapist present to:
- Discuss problems
- Share solutions
- Give and receive support (ex: Alcoholics Anonymous)
task facilitation group
focuses on training & consciousness raising
help members develop skills to interact effectively w/ others in task-oriented interpersonal settings
leader techniques to increase self-awareness as it relates to sensitivity to others improve functioning
tasks center around problem-solving & decision making
Shuts its gates after the start of therapy (or after 1-3 sessions). Often these groups are brief therapy groups. Meet weekly for 6 month or less. Long term closed groups mostly in prisons, etc.
New members can join after the group begins, allows for more group stability. Disadvantage is groups members that are added late miss some information or experiences.
ideal length of session
1.5 hours, even if critical issues being discussed (for adults). Longer than this people lose attention span/fatigue group members. Children's groups should be shorter and meet more frequently (1hr)
the forces operating in groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one another. the process through which inputs are translated into outputs, influences individual behavior.
Lewin thought that many factors contribute to it
Refers to interaction (verbal & non-verbal) between the group members. Also includes the different roles that people assume in a group.
As the group develops more time is spent on process than content.
7 types of group processes
contagion, conflict , anxiety, consensual validation, universality, family reenactment, instillation of hope
an emotional/physical reaction from the group, one member cries other members cry, the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
checking one's behavior with others; done by questioning, confronting, & affirming individually or with a group
factors in preplanning a group
• clarifying of purpose: what is the group to accomplish
• group setting: an environment that's quiet, comfortable
•time & size: how long & how many
•membership: heterogeneous or homogeneous
•goals: expected or planned outcomes
•commitment: voluntary or mandatory
•openness: consideration of new ideas & actions
•risk taking: willingness to engage new thoughts & behaviors
•attitudes: how members & leaders perceive tasks & others
• What do we have to do?
• What do we need to do to accomplish our goals? *warm-up
• Differentiating: taking care of their needs by themselves
• Integrating: doing things with others
members constantly deciding to between the two. leader helps members balance between them.
• refers to both the physical setup of a group as well as the interaction of each group member in relation to the group as a whole
physical structure should be practical (circle, chain, wheel, Y, theatre style)
promote a positive atmosphere, used as a catalyst to activate groups, encourage members to take risk, provide learning to move group, help or shift focus, increase risk taking, increase comfortability
timing & instruction are everything
types of group exercises
verbal interpersonal activities - introducing oneself to the group and answering questions
non-verbal interpersonal - "changing seats"—asking select members or an entire group to change seats
Intrapersonal activities: an exercise is done alone at first and then shared and explored with others at a later time
verbal intrapersonal - draw a picture & share
non-verbal intrapersonal - body relaxation techniques
the way members relate to one another
•consists of nonverbal and verbal behaviors and the attitudes that go with them.
•The meaning of nonverbal behaviors cannot be assumed
• on a continuum, from extremely nondirective to highly directive
track who speaks to whom & how often member speaks, observe silence
• "a dynamic structure within an individual (based on needs, cognitions, and values), which usually comes to life under the influence of social stimuli or defined positions" (Munich & Astrachan, 1983, p. 20).
manifestation based on that individual's expectation of self and others and the interaction one has in particular groups and situations
roles do not define overall identity of individual; though, they influence how they act
adds to the functioning of the group in a positive way. initiators in the group
relationship building group behavior. Supportive, and constructive interpersonal relationships, helps balance
behavior that inhibits either team performance or that of individual members; anti group/outsider
conflict between the role and individual plays in the ouside world and the one experienced with the group ex. an active participant
member is given a role within the group that s/he does not want or is comfortable with
member does not know what role to perform; this usually happens in a leaderless group
member expected to move from one role to another as the group progresses and individual doesn't feel comfortable doing so
the first specialists in group work to delineate positive primary group variables based on research he conducted with others on therapy groups.
positive variables = 11 curative factors
Yalom's negative group variables
•avoiding conflict: silencing those who disagree w/group
•abdicating group responsibilities: takes no responsibility & place all on leader
•psychic numbing: anesthetizing to contradictions within the group
•becoming narcissistic: encouraging cohesiveness w/ hatred
ways to learn group dynamics
• Outdoor experiences
• Simulation games for team building
• Learning integration
Theory X - leader is the expert, tends to be rigid & conventional in their beliefs, controlling
structure: wheel b/c leader centered group
emphasis on personality of one giving that person much power & trust (leader-centered)
good during crisis or chaos
Theory Y - trust members to develop their own potential & others
cooperate, collaborate, & share power w/ members
self-awareness & develop the guru within (Rogers)
good for openness & establishing trust
leader does not provide structure or direction for group. group-centered focusing on members & interpersonal processes.
slow to establish agenda & set goals
used to decrease intimidation, increase like ability
usually leads to no accomplishment
Theory Z leader
leader that encourage members to participate & trust members to meet individual and collective goals thru interaction
group for mutual support, usually end creating some leadership style that is comfortable to the group
group leader skills different from individual
facilitating: open up communication
protecting: protect member for attack of other members
blocking: stop counterproductive behavior
intervention used to connect one member to one or more other members. connecting persons with one another by pointing out to them what they share in common.
leader identifies certain behaviors & categorizes it. based on leader observation (for example, observation of group blaming instead of productive). leader looks for ways to overcome these behaviors
designed to get potentially productive feedback from a group member. member gave negative feedback to the member; leader tries to persuade member to restate feedback constructively
insight, meaning, & synergy occur with it. leaders should be skilled in divergent in ways of thinking & behaving.
group leader roles
traffic director: make members aware of behaviors that promote or inhibit communication
modeler of appropriate behavior:
interactional catalyst: promote interaction w/o saying it (ex. may look at member when needs to respond)
communicator facilitator: leader reflect feelings & content
withdrawal from conflict
leader distance from conflict & postpones interventions. good for further observation to collect data w/o becoming overly involved. help to avoid taking sides
disadv: conflict may escalate & ineffective in dealing with crisis
down play conflict when issues are minor & unimportant and relationship is more important.
disadv: doesn't resolve issue & feeling may erupt later
leader may be seen as weak or insensitive
consensus is the idea; get all members to reexamine a situation & identify points of agreement. (ex. mediation -3rd party hears conflict & render decision)
increase group commitment
disadv: very timely to implement & resistance of members set aside own goals for the group
use of compromise to resolve conflict
giving up a little to avoid conflict. win-win in cooperative behavior & collaborative efforts.
good when resources are limited & members are flexible (ex. negotiation)
disadv: individuals may inflate wants for larger gain & final outcome may ineffective or less desirable
use of power to resolve conflict
imposition of one will over another. power is based on status or personality. position power (immature relationships) personal power (mature relationship) individual uses ability to persuade.
good to solve problems quickly (limited time) and save relationships & alleviate resentment & revenge
Sharing of leadership between two therapists: needed when there are a lot of group members
The goal is to increase observations, knowledge and skills, model effective behaviors
works best they have similar philosophy & group style
advantages of co-leadership
ease of handling difficult situations
use of modeling
feedback from different perspective
helps avoid burnout
shared specialized knowledge
pragmatics: ability to cover for one another
limitations of co-leadership
lack of coordinated efforts
too leader focused
competition between leaders
collusion: co-leader form alliance w/ group member to address disliked qualities of the other leader
used to stop members from continuing to ramble & help focus "you seem to be repeating yourself, see if you can make a sentence & let's hear from someone else." making sure that new material is not introduced into the group too late in the session for the group to deal with it adequately
directly invites members to comment or give input; used to encourage participation or go deeper "What your thoughts about that"
helps members focus on specific topic or person for a length of time. "Let's conclude our focus on risk-taking before we move on"
Corey stages (9)
formation, orientation/exploration, transition, working, consolidation/termination, follow-up/evaluation
Gladding stages (9)
forming/orientation, transition (storming/norming), performing/working, mourning/termination
steps to forming a group
Step 1: Developing a Rationale for the Group
Step 2: Deciding on a Theoretical Format
Step 3: Weighing Practical Considerations
Step 4: Publicizing the Group
Step 5: Screening and Pre-training and
Step 6: Selecting Group Members
Step 7. Selecting a Group Leader
Tasks of beginning a group
Dealing with apprehension: anxiety
Reviewing members' goals and contracts: individual and/or group; restate purpose & have members state goal
Specifying more clearly or reiterating group rules (summarizing): rationale behind each rule
Promoting a positive interchange among members so they will want to continue (Weiner, 1984
screening of group members
essential to screen to determine if the group is right for the individual at the particular time.
prescreening for group:
identify needs, expectations, & commitment
challenge myths & misconceptions
ideal candidate for group
individual who has a specific goal, who has lessen the fears of a group, who are comfortable with their role & surroundings, must be willing to contribute, mature (immature, self-centered, hostile, closed individual are not ideal for group)
heterogeneous vs. homogeneous group
hetero: best for intensive group therapy with focus on personality change
homo: best for support & have focused; task groups
group leader skills - promoting positive interchange
holding the focus on interesting topics
shifting the focus when irrelevant/uninteresting
cutting off hostile
subtle ways or not so use of feelings & behaviors members use to get what they want. angry & unresolved issues of control
fix: reframing destructive acts in positive way
angry or frustrated & don't wan to participate, act as barriers.
fix: drawing out and/or confront & interpret in a reflective manner
dominates the conversation of the group, not allowing others to participate
fix: cutting off
sign of hostility or shyness, nonassertive reflecting or delay in assessing feelings.
fix: drawing out, & acceptance by group
users of sarcasm
mask of feelings with smart language; help member express anger more directly & get feedback from other members
opening a group
known as the critical incident in the life of the group general lead, opening statement with purpose, intro exercise...Q&A
beginning a group - structure
promotes group cooperation, decreases anxiety, inclusion, but restrict responsibility & freedom
question is what degree of structure
members look to lead for structure & answers
beginning a group - involvement
structured exercises are creative way to do it. discussing info & specific concerns to the group helps
beginning a group - group cohesion
we-ness, expressive arts best to help; doesn't fully manifest until norming. universality helps also.
the process by which members connect with one another psychologically and physically - icebreakers
clarifying the purpose
Sometimes members unintentionally bring up material that is not appropriate for a beginning session or the overall purpose of the group
members begin to compete with others to find their place in the group, involves struggles over power & control, can be overt (e.g., arguing) and covert (e.g., withdrawal), Associated with a lot of fears
form of avoidance of conflict, may get stuck if conflict is avoid or dwelled on. then conflict become destructive.
conflict can be positive, needs to be direct towards a constructive dialogue. helps overcome resistance, release tension, strengthen relationships
behavior that moves the group away from conflict, discomfort, conflict, or potential growth. leader should not react with resistance & defensiveness
using questions to disguise statements "safety net" leader can ask members to make "I" statements and phrase questions as a statement
misuse of support; overly supportive of others to avoid fully expressing own emotional pain
encourages band-aiders & advice-givers, present themselves as helpless & incapable but will not receive feedback
attack on the leader
most direct form of resistance, contribute to subgrouping, could be justified. leader should address immediately & determine underlying variables in a non defensive, open manner
working thru storming
leveling: draw out silent members & bring understanding to overly active members
talk thru as a group
feedback (informal - verbal or formal - rounds, logs)
conflict management orientations
rules or expectations of the group; may be unclear, confusing, ambiguous, restrictive. based on input of everyone
relationship in norming
here & now experiences: best to help group make progress to deal w/ immediate feelings & interactions
hope, cooperation, collaboration, cohesion
task processing in norming
goals for members to reach agreement on norms from which the group will operate, also commitment
supporting, empathizing, facilitating, self-disclosure
results of norming: members feel connected & ready to move on to be productive, have guidelines to operate, feel about themselves & the group
focuses on achievement of goals (individual & group) productivity and movement into unified & productive system
40-60% group time
willing to try new behaviors & strategies
task processing in working stages
rounds: equal input to express ideas & concerns
role-playing: focus on behaviors & consequences
***trust & care vital in role-playing
homework: practice outside group setting
incorporation: personal awareness & appreciation for the group & accomplishment
problem in the working stages
racial & gender issues: conflict result of this
group collusion: self-preservation (ex. agrees with the boss to keep from being fired. fix: devil's advocate procedure
individuals who hold cultural stereotypes & hold to them and act based on those
signs of working stage
sense of trust & cohesion, work in the present, take risks self-disclosing, deal with conflict, open & honest communication & feedback w/o fear, accept responsibility for their role
assisting in working stage
modeling by leader, exercises
group observing group: fishbowl procedure
brainstorming, nominal-group technique (NGT): comes with individual ideas then create system to choose collective idea
synectics: excursion - members take a break to engage in fantasy, present ideal situation to group
group processing, teach skills
outcome of working stages
achieved goals, combined group vision, learning & sharing of ideas & info among members. humor is helpful in the working stages
corrective emotional experience
another benefit of the working stage. member takes risk to express strong emotion, group helps member recognize inappropriateness of certain feelings & behavior or avoidance of it.
primary activities of termination
reflect on their past experiences
evaluate what has been learned
process memories, acknowledge ambivalent feelings
engage in cognitive decision making (Wagenheim & Gemmill, 1994)
practice how you want to say "good-bye" you get to have a choice about how you want to say "goodbye"
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