54 terms

New Nation by Alvin Zhang

Flashcards for New Nation test on Wednesday, February 29th.
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precedent
an example that becomes standard practice
His Excellency
name suggested to call Washington
Federal Judiciary Act
1789- law passed by first Congress that setup lower federal courts
Washington's cabinet
departments designed to help the president lead the nation and make decisions
The 5 departments in Washington's Cabinet
State, War, Treasury, Justice, and Postal Service
What did state department do?
Dealt with relations with other countries
What did war department do?
In charge of nation's defense
What did treasury department do?
In charge of nation's economy/financial security
What did justice department do?
In charge dealing with disputes (Supreme Court)
What did postal service do?
delivers mail (not really part of "cabinet")
Who was the secretary of war?
Henry Knox
Who was the secretary of state?
Thomas Jefferson
Who was the secretary of the treasury?
Alex Hamilton
Who was the attorney general?
Edmund Randolph
What was the most urgent money issue?
War Debt
What were Hamilton's 3 proposals?
Pay off war debts, Raise government revenue, create national bank
What did they do about the state's debts?
Federal agreed to pay for them, but most of the southern already paid most of their debt, so they agreed to place capital somewhere in the south.
2 ways Hamilton wanted to raise revenue
Tariffs(taxes on imports), and a national bank
How do banks work?
People deposit money and banks use it and pay them interest. Banks loan money and make person who needs it pay interest.
Strict Interpretation of Constitution
Everything in the Constitution is what the government must follow (word for word)
Loose Interpretation of Constitution
A broad interpretation of the Constitution (flexible)
Elastic Cause
Article 1, Section 8, Number 18- do whatever is neccessary and proper to carry out its specific powers
Competing Land Claims
Trouble in Trans-Appalachian Mountains, claimed by Spain, Britain, Native Americans, and US
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794 battle between Native American and American Forces-1000 Americans beat 2000 Native Americans
Treaty of Greeneville
12 Native American tribes ceded control of much of Indiana and Ohio to US government
Trouble in Backcountry
Hamilton placed tax on whiskey, which angered small, backcountry farmers
Whiskey Rebellion
1794 Protest against the government tax on whiskey, where 13,000 US soldiers put down the rebellion
Alex Hamilton reaction to Whiskey Rebellion
He thought resistance was treason against society
French Revolution
revolution overthrowing government in France, ended in violence and mass execution
France and Britain at War
US didn't know which side to support. Jefferson wanted to support France, while Hamilton wanted to stay neutral
Washington's Decision
Decided to stay neutral
Britain's reaction to Washington's Decision
Seized cargoes of American Ships
Jay's Treaty
agreement that ended dispute with Britain over American shipping during French Revolution
Pinckney's Treaty
treaty with Spain allowing US commercial use of Missippi River
Washington's first warning from farewell speech
Differences and political disagreements will weaken the nation
Washington's second warning from farewell speech
Agreements with foreign nations might work against US interests
What did Hamilton support? (5)
Maintaining good relations with Britain, opposed French Revolution, Loose Interpretation, Strong Central government, Trade, Manufacturing, and Cities
What did Madison and Jefferson support? (4)
French Revolution, Not Strong Central Government, Strict Interpretation, Rural nation of farmers
Political Party
a group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence the government
What were the two political parties in 1796?
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Which two people ran for president in the election of 1796?
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams
What problems did the US have with France?
France began seizing and harassing US ships
XYZ Affair
Incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from US diplomats
How much was the bribe?
$250,000
How much did US have to loan France?
$10 Million
Alien and Sedition Acts
series of four laws designed to silence immigrants
Alien
immigrants who were not yet citizens
Sedition
stirring up rebellion against government
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
gave states the right to declare acts of Congress null and void
State's rights
idea that states have certain rights that federal government cannot overrule
Nullification
cancel any act of Congress that is considered unconstitutional
What ever happened to the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Jefferson and Madison weren't successful, but they reversed the act or let the act expire between 1800 and 1802 when the democratic-republicans won control of Congress after two years
Peace with France
Adams reopened talks with France and signed the Convention of 1800. People hated him afterwards.
Who becomes the new president in 1800?
Thomas Jefferson