40 terms

English 2

Literary Terms
Tells about a single event or experience, fictional (not true), 500-15,000 words in length, has a beginning, middle, and end, creates an impression on the reader
Elements of a short story
Point of view
the time and location in which a story takes place
Place- geographical location, where is the action of the story taking place?
Time- when is the story taking place? (Historical period, time of day, year, past, present, future, etc)
Mood or atmosphere- what feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?
Weather conditions- it is rainy, sunny, stormy, etc,
Social conditions- what is the daily life of the characters like? Does the story contain local color (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)?
how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea; it is the sequence of events in a story or play is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. The short story usually has one so it can be read in one sitting.
Parts of plot
Rising action
Falling action
the beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed.
Rising action
this is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax.)
this is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the stour. The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not?
Falling action
the events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not.....
is essential to plot; without it there is no plot,
It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move.
It is not merely limited to open arguments; rather it is any form of opposition that faces the main character.
Within a short story there may be only one central struggle, or there may be one dominant struggle with many minor ones.
Two types of conflict
- a struggle with a force outside one's self,
a struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc.
Man vs. man
(physical) the leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men. Conflict
Man vs. nature
(physical) the leading character struggles with his physical strength and/or wits against nature.... The weather a disaster, an animal....Conflict
Man vs. circumstances
(classical) the leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her... Conflict
Man vs. Society
(social) the leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people. Conflict
Man vs. himself/herself
(psychological)- the leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc. conflict
Man vs. technology
(modern conflict)- the leading character struggles against a technological force (something created by man) could be a physical or a mental conflict
One character is clearly central to the story with all major events having some importance to this character- he/she is the
he opposes of the main character is called the
Innocent eye
the story is told through the the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult).
Stream of Consciousness
the story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions.
First Person
the story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using pronouns I, me, we etc.) the reader sees the story thought this person's eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or feels,
Third person point of view
here the narrator does not participate in the action of the story as one of the characters, but let's us know exactly how the characters feel. We learn about the characters the light the outside voice.
the author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses. Often referred to as "all knowing".
the author's underlying message or main idea that he/she is trying to convey. may be the author's thoughts about a topic or view of human nature
The title of the short story usually points to what the writer is saying and he may use various figures of speech to emphasize his theme, such as: symbol, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or irony.
Some simple examples of common themes from literature, tv, and film are: *We always express it in a sentence.
Doesn't change over the course of the story
-Shows no growth, maturity, learning (as a character or to the reader)
-This character is the same character at the end of the story as he/she was in the beginning
Does change over the course of the story
-Shows some level of growth, maturity, or learning
-This character is not the same character at the end of the book as the character you first meet in the beginning
-We know some information, but it is general and shallow
-We don't usually know the character's feelings
-Think of a picture..... (We see an image, and it may have some color, but it has no depth.
Three dimensional
-We know a lot about this character personality, ideas, background, desires, motivations, reactions, etc.
-Privy to be their thoughts and feelings
Aspects of a character
His/her physical appearance
What he/she says, thinks, feels, and dreams
What he/she does or does not do
*What others say about him/her
How others react to him/her
Characters are convincing if they are: consistent, motivated, and life-like (resemble real people)
Direct Characterization
- writer simply states a character's traits
Indirect Characterization
- character is reveled through...
-words, thoughts, or actions
-descriptions of appearance or background
-what other characters say about a character
-Ways in which other characters react to a character
The pitch of a word or phrase often used to express differences of meaning
Choice of setting, object, images, details, plot, characters, and word that create a climate of feeling
a tone in literature where the author corrects, censures, and ridicules the follies and vices of society
-It is humor used to make a point
Think of Jon Stewart, Dave Chapel,e, the Simpsons, Saturday night live... They all use comedy to make fun of something absurd or wrong in society, a group, or an individual Twain: Frequent targets of satire are politicians/government, the rich, and the ignorant/uneducated people
Gothic Romanticism
Style of writing that combined the two:
Dark imagery, symbols, and settings
Themes of death, disease, and corruption
Use of the supernatural (ghosts, demons, and otherworldly creatures... Like a talking Raven!)
Incorporates the Grotesque:
Something that is unnatural
It is twisted from its natural state, and corrupted into something that repulsed you or makes you cringe
started with architecture in the dark and Middle Ages gothic cathedrals gargoyles, dark Imagery, demons, twisted creatures of myth
a world-view that stresses the ideal strong respect for nature and whit it can teach, focus on creativity emotion and supernatural