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Social Psychology Exam 1 Ch 1-4

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concepts
Myers discusses how Maslow's description of "self-actualized" people was based on a sample he personally selected. Had he selected other people to describe, his ensuing list of self-actualization characterizations may have been different. This is an example of how values can influence
take place in a labratory
The author of the text reported that two-thirds of social psychology experiments
random assignment
Putting participants in one of two conditions by flipping a coin illustrates
control and random assigment
Two essential ingredients in a social-psychological experiment are
laboratory research
Asking students to come to a laboratory at 3 p.m. in order to participate in a study on university students' usage of cellular phones is an example of what type of research?
greatest longevity
According to the text, the postal code areas of Scotland that have the least overcrowding and the least amount of unemployment also have the
informed consent
___________ is an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
everyday language
Your decision to call someone a "terrorist" rather than a "freedom fighter" depends on your view of the cause. This is an example of how values can influence not only social psychology, but
social representations
Socially shared beliefs are widely held ideas and values, which include our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This is a definition of
longevity
Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) found that the height of graveyard markers in a Glasgow cemetery was positively correlated with
theories explain facts
The difference between facts and theories is that
random
A sample in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is called a _____ sample.
humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations.
Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes
random assignment
The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition is referred to as
Hypotheses allow us to test a theory
Which one of the following is one of the purposes of a hypothesis according to the text?
used only if it is essential and justified.
Deception in an experiment is
normal or overweight woman's picture.
In Snyder and Haugen's research on obesity and social status (1994; 1995), male students were shown a picture of a normal or obese woman before having a conversation with a female student. In this study, the independent variable was the
Informed consent
_____ is an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
generalizing from the laboratory to life.
Regarding social-psychological research, Myers warns that we must be cautious about
old cars are replaced by newer and better models.
The analogy used in the text to describe what happens when old theories are discarded employs a discussion of how
obese
A study of _____ women, by Gortmaker and colleagues (1993), found that these women were less likely to be married and less likely to earn high salaries than women in a comparison group.
significantly more
In Boyatzis' (1995) study of the influence television has on aggressive behavior in children, the results indicated that the viewers of Power Rangers committed ____ aggressive acts per two-minute interval compared to those children who did not watch this program.
humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations
Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes
experimental
In order to determine whether or not changing one variable (such as education) will produce changes in another (such as income), one needs to conduct _______ research
deception
_____ occurs in research when participants are misinformed or misled about the method and purposes of the study.
sampling bias
In 1936, the news magazine Literary Digest obtained the opinions of over two million Americans regarding the presidential election. The results suggested that Landon would win in a landslide over Franklin D. Roosevelt. A few weeks later, FDR won in a landslide. The results of the survey were not valid, and this was due to
All of these ...X causes Y, Y causes X, A third variable causes or influences both X and Y
Variable X is correlated with Variable Y. Which of the following could explain this correlation?
both experimental and labratory research
You are interested in finding out the effect that crowding has on people's moods. You conduct a study in a psychology research lab using two types of participants - participants who have to wait in a crowded waiting room before completing a measure of their mood, and participants who wait in an empty room before completing the same measure. Which type of research did you conduct?
summarizes and explains facts
A theory
social neuroscientists.
Those who consider under-the-skin (i.e., biological) and between the skins (i.e., social) influences on topics such as love and hate are referred to as
other people, our attitudes and personality, and our biology
Myers points out that our social behavior is shaped by
Intuition is both powerful and perilous.
According to Myers' discussion of intuition, which statement is TRUE?
Our standards regarding promptness, beauty, and equality vary with our culture.
Which of the following is an example of how our attitudes and behaviors are shaped by external social forces?
independent
The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the ______ variable
demand characteristics
The cues in an experiment that tell the participants what behavior is expected are called
deception
_____ occurs in research when participants are misinformed or misled about the method and purposes of the study.
are more likely to be about the same in every way
As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment
humans' tendency to prejudge reality based on expectations.
Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes
Social psychology research shows us what to value.
What is NOT true about how values affect social psychology?
think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people
dependent variable
An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. Aggression was the
fact that it occurs in real-world settings.
Myers argues that the major strength of correlational research is the
learned helplessness
You have tried to study for an exam with flashcards, with a friend, and with your notes - all to no avail. You begin to feel that you should give up, as whatever you do does not seem to help your exam scores. According to Myers, the best term for this symptom is
they move on and try to do better
Learning about immune neglect, which statement applies to how most people respond to failing an exam?
praise and learning from one's achievments
According to Myers' discussion on self-esteem and success, research suggests that self-esteem comes from
collectivism
In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.
false consensus effect
Barbara was really shocked when her candidate was not elected. She had assumed that everyone felt as she did and supported her candidate's ideas. This is an example of the
collectivistic; individualistic
A person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "Went to the movies," and a person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "I went to the movies."
individualists; collectivists
Political conservatives tend to be economic _______ and moral _______.
raise the standards by which we evaluate our own attainments
An example of how social comparisons can actually breed misery, rather than satisfaction, is when
We really don't know ourselves as well as we think we do
Which statement is most accurate in relationship to our self-awareness?
experience great difficulty
When it comes to predicting the intensity and duration of our future emotions, research indicates that most people
intensity of their future emotions.
You just broke up with someone you had been dating for a few months. You are surprised at how upset you are over the breakup, given that the relationship was not that serious. This is an example of how people have difficulty predicting the
happier
Compared to those with low self-esteem, people with a sense of self-worth are
The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you.
Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?
majority; less
According to Myers, when our social group is the _______, we think _______ about it.
implicit
Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?
overestimate
When you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to _____ what others think about your nervousness.
spotlight
Assuming that everyone thinks you are a jerk because you forgot to show up at a dinner party with a gift for the host can be considered an example of the _____ effect.
commit less vandalism
Research has found that when prisoners are given some control over their environments, such as being able to move chairs and operate the lights, they tend to
the other person said about us
According to the results of the Kahan and Johnson (1992) study mentioned in the text, two days after a conversation with someone our recall is best for what
With an interdependent self, one has a sense of belonging.
.
Since our self-concept seems to adjust to our situation, which is most correct?
high self-esteem
Baumeister (2003) reported that people who engaged in sexual activity at an early age, teen gang leaders, terrorists, and men in prison for committing violent crimes tend to possess
negatively
Researchers reported that both anxiety and depression are ______ correlated with self-efficacy
social comparison
You prefer that professors post exam scores (by identification number), rather than returning them individually. It makes you feel better to see how you did in comparison to other students. This is an example of what social psychology phenomenon?
skill;chance
According to the self-serving bias, we tend to attribute our successes to _______ and our losses to _______.
the self
According to the author of the text, no topic in psychology today is more researched than
evryone does it
Which saying reflects the false consensus effect?
the tendency to see our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unusual.
The false uniqueness effect is
internal
You attend a self-help discussion group, where the leader is encouraging people to think of themselves as the writers, directors, and actors of their own lives. The group leader is hoping people will adopt a(n) _______ locus of control.
both the intensity and the duration
According to Wilson and Gilbert (2003), people have the greatest difficulty predicting _______ of their emotions.
specific;truthful
The best way to improve your performance in class is to be _____ in the praise and _____ about your ability and performance.
more likely
People with low self-esteem are _____ to have clinical problems, including anxiety, loneliness, and eating disorders.
external
Your best friend earned a grade of F on her latest physics exam, and believes it was because the professor wrote a very difficult exam. She therefore has a(n) _______ locus of control.
individualistic
In what type of culture would a threat to our personal identity (such as having someone tell us we are dumb or weird) cause us to be more upset than a threat to our collective identity (such as having someone ridicule students)?
individual achievement
Most people with high self-esteem value individual achievement and relationships with others. Narcissists value
the self-serving bias
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is referred to as
better about their speach and their appearance
In Savitsky and Gilovich's study, public speakers who were informed about the illusion-of-transparency phenomenon felt
spotlight effect
A study by Gilovich, Medvec, and Savitsky (2000) had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Manilow t-shirts. This study explored which concept mentioned in the text?
more aggressive
People with high self-esteem and narcissism are _____.
self-efficacy
A sense that one is competent and effective refers to one's
locus of control
The extent to which we perceive outcomes as a result of our own efforts or as a result of chance refers to
individualism
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications is a definition of
conservative
You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be illegal and that she favors tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political
positive
Researchers reported a _______ correlation between persistence and self-efficacy.
more
In Kitayama's (1996) study of cultural differences in the praise that friends give to one another, the results indicated that Americans are ¬¬_______ likely to compliment others when compared with the Japanese.
It makes us feel less vulnerable to risks such as AIDS.
Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that the self-serving bias is adaptive?
self-reference effect
Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the
possible self
After seeing a billboard for the lottery, you imagine a life of the rich and famous for yourself. This future self-schema you imagine is an example of a
the false consensus effect
Assuming that other people are as prejudiced against a certain group as we are can easily be explained by
individualistic
Self-esteem is more personal and less relational in what type of culture?
negatively
Researchers reported that both anxiety and depression are ______ correlated with self-efficacy.
transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others is referred to as the illusion of
collectivists; individualists
Political liberals tend to be economic ¬¬¬¬_______ and moral _______.
daily experiences
Our self-concept is fed by our roles, our social identity, our comparisons, and by
is relevant to our self-concepts
The self-reference effect refers to the tendency to quickly process and remember well the information that
internal
People who successfully stop smoking and do well in school tend to have a(n) _______ locus of control.
success and distance ourselves from failure
Saying "I earned an A on my psychology test" versus "My instructor gave me a C on my psychology test" exemplifies how we associate ourselves with
self-interest colors social judgment.
The fact that we usually attribute more responsibility to our partners than to ourselves when problems arise in a relationship is an example of how
the looking-glass self
The habit of using how we imagine another person perceiving us, as a mirror for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as
individual acheivement
Most people with high self-esteem value individual achievement and relationships with others. Narcissists
unrealistic optimism
Many people don't quit smoking despite all the negative health information available. This is an example of
effort and fewer self-doubts will help us succeed
The truth concerning self-efficacy encourages us not to resign ourselves to bad situations. If we persist despite initial failures
fear
According to Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001), women reported that they would feel angry if asked sexually harassing questions during a job interview. When actually asked such questions, women more often experienced
increase
If your initial efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, or improve your grades are successful, it is likely that your self-efficacy will
clinical depression
According to Schwartz (2000; 2004), individualistic modern cultures have "an excess of freedom," which is positively correlated with
self-handicapping
John is nervous about his tennis match, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night's sleep the night before the match. This could be an example of
strong
You notice that your niece is unusually persistent when working on her homework. She rarely claims that she is unable to complete an assignment and is academically successful. You would be correct in speculating that she likely has _______ feelings of self-efficacy.
see ourselves as better than the average person
When we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to
I'm sure I'll get a great job when I graduate
Which of the following is an example of unrealistic optimism?
explicit
After learning about another culture or religion, we begin to realize how prejudiced we have been toward this group and realize that we should change our attitude to a more positive one. This is an _______ attitude.
the tendency to see our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unusual.
The false uniqueness effect is
much less prejudice than others
Most people perceive themselves as
The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you
Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?
self-esteem
Our sense of self-worth is also called our
possble-selfs
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future are called
collectivism
In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.
majority; less
According to Myers, when our social group is the _______, we think _______ about it.
increases
According to the text, self-esteem typically _____ in Japanese exchange students after they spend several months at a Canadian university. This suggests that self-concepts become more individualized after visiting Western countries.
increase with
Self-efficacy is similar to self-esteem in that both _______ our accomplishments
collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one's group, such as one's family or workplace, and defining one's identity accordingly is called
conservative
You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be illegal and that she favors tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political
learned helplessness
You have tried to study for an exam with flashcards, with a friend, and with your notes - all to no avail. You begin to feel that you should give up, as whatever you do does not seem to help your exam scores. According to Myers, the best term for this symptom is
overestimating
According to Myers, we are prone to "impact bias," or _______ the impact of emotion-causing events (such as finding out the results after being tested for HIV).
effective, superior, and proud
Kitayama and Markus (2000) found that, for American students, happiness comes from
self-serving bias
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is referred to as
large, selective university
High school students who finished near the top of their class are more likely to experience a threat to their academic self-esteem if they attend a
to thine own self be true
Which of the following maxims best represents the concept of individualism?
counterfactual thinking
Which of the following maxims best represents the concept of individualism?
dispositional
Attributing behavior to a person's traits is an example of what type of attribution?
dispositional
A fellow student is consistently late for class. You assume this is because he is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for his behavior?
belief perserverance
Sometimes the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives. Social psychologists refer to this as
forget about situational influences
Inferring that Cinderella is truly meek as she cowers in her oppressive home is an example of how we often
consistency
Misha is struggling with her computer. She is asked if she usually encounters difficulty when using her computer. The answer to this question provides information
behave toward that person in a way that draws out their flirtatious behavior
If you are told that someone you have never met is attracted to you, you will likely
situational
Attributing behavior to a person's environment is an example of what type of attribution
controlled processing
When trying to recall the definition of the fundamental attribution error during an exam, you think back to what the professor was wearing when he was talking about the fundamental attribution error in class. What type of thinking is this?
self-awareness
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself is called
availability
The cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory is called the _____ heuristic.
heuristic
Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments?
distinctiveness
Misha is struggling with her computer. She is asked if she has difficulty using other computers on campus. The answer to this question provides information about
controlled processing
"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called
self-conscious
Maureen does not seem to take responsibility for her actions (e.g., always creating excuses for coming home past curfew and acting like a victim of teachers when it comes to bad grades). In order for her to take responsibility for her behavior, she needs to become more
Your beliefs influence how you see now information
You have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?
regression toward the average
Although you once earned a 100 on your physics exam, you have subsequently been unable to earn a perfect score again. Your experience may be understood in terms of
belief perserverence
Sometimes the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives. Social psychologists refer to this as
priming
To retrieve a memory of where your date told you she wanted to go for dinner tomorrow, you need to activate one of the strands that leads to this memory, such as thinking about what types of food she does and does not like. This process is known as
an illusory correlation.
The perception of a relationship where none actually exists, or the perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, is called
representativeness heuristic
Once during a hospital stay, you observed a man and a woman (both in health professional attire) talking. You assumed that the man was a physician and that the woman was a nurse. Later, you found out the opposite was true. What type of heuristic did you use during your initial reaction to the two individuals?
regression toward the average
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or behaviors to return toward average is called
actor-observor perspective
What commands our attention as we shop for groceries each week is the environment around us, such as the number of people in front of us at the checkout counter. Yet when we watch another person's behavior at the grocery store, he or she, rather than the environment, occupies the center of our attention. As a result, we tend to engage in the attribution error. That is, we are irritable because the lines are long, but the other person is cantankerous because he or she is an unhappy person. What explanation below best explains this use of the fundamental attribution error?
devalue their partner and become distant from him or her.
Murray and his colleagues (2003) found that among married couples, the self-fulfilling prophecy occurred when one person interpreted slight hurts as rejections. The person who felt rejected was then motivated to
Their beliefs influence how they see new information.
Your friends have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?
they might disprove what they believe
One reason people are overconfident is that they are not inclined to seek out information
illusion of control
The idea that chance events are subject to our influence describes
consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
According to the attribution theorist Kelley (1973), what three types of information do we use when we make attributions for other people's behavior?
both contestants and observers thought the hosts were more knowledgeable than the contestants.
Researchers randomly assigned participants to play the part of either a quiz game contestant or the host, while other participants merely observed the game. Results indicated that
the planning fallacy
Marcia thought that she would have enough time to write her paper after she bought groceries and cleaned the house, but she ran out of time. This is an example of
give them feedback about others; performance
Which of the following strategies will NOT be helpful in reducing the overconfidence bias?
most prone
Kruger and Dunning (1999) found that those students who scored lowest on tests of grammar and logic were _______ to overestimating their grammar and logic skills.
behavioral confirmation
When our expectations lead us to act in ways that induce others to confirm those expectations, _______ is at work.
illusory correlation
Thinking that our premonitions correlate with events represents
through a camera focused on the detective
In a study conducted by Lassiter and his colleagues (2005), participants observed a suspect confessing during a police interview. The results indicated that participants were more likely to perceive the confession as coerced when they viewed the confession
biased against their position
According to your text, people everywhere perceive referees and the media as
availability
Assuming most crimes involve violence because the news generally reports on rapes, robberies, and beatings is an example of the _______ heuristic.
Unhappy people tend to be more self-focused and brooding
Which statement is NOT correct as it relates to mood and judgment?
fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate depositional influences on other people's behavior is called the
overconfidence phenomonon
The tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs is called the
heuristic
Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments?
misinformation effect
While waiting to cross the street, you witness a man running a red light—causing a three-car accident. Just after it happens, the man who ran the stoplight gets out of the car to talk to you. He tells you that the light was yellow. Later you tell police that you remembered the light being yellow, not red, when the man went through the intersection. This scenario illustrates
disposititional
You are consistently late to your psychology class, because the biology class you have immediately before it is in a building on the other side of campus. You are concerned that your professor does not think you are a serious student because of your chronic tardiness. If this were true, what type of attribution would your professor be making about your behavior?
we can easily picture an alterntive outcome
Counterfactual thinking is more likely when
concluded that to some extent the speech reflected the speaker's true beliefs
Researchers had students read debaters' speeches either supporting or attacking Cuban leader Fidel Castro. When the students were later told that each debater's position had been assigned, they
reduces
Research has shown that explaining why an opposite theory may be true (e.g., why a cautious person might be a better firefighter than a risk-taking person) _______ belief perseverance
reflect inner traits
People in Western cultures are more inclined to assume that others' behaviors
representativeness
The process of judging something by comparing it to our mental representation of a category uses the _____ heuristic.
offer more direct support to the poor
Those who make situational attributions regarding poverty and unemployment tend to adopt political positions that
behavioral confirmation
You attend a party where you do not know anyone, but expect that people will be friendly. You behave in a warm and sociable manner. Your behavior, in turn, leads to other people being friendly to you. This situation can best be described as
automatic processing
Jumping out of your seat as a result of an unexpected scene in a movie is what type of thinking?
underestimate; overestimate
Fundamental attribution error is the tendency for observers to _________ situational influences and ________ dispositional influences on behavior.
representativeness
On the first day of class, we see a middle-aged man at the front of the room, talking to a younger man. If we assume the older man is the professor and the younger man is the student, we are relying on what heuristic?
misattribution
According to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. This is an example of
women thought to be attractive spoke more warmly than the other women.
Researchers had male students speak by telephone with women they thought were either attractive or unattractive. When judges later analyzed the women's comments, they found that the
through a camera focused on the suspect
In a study conducted by Lassiter and his colleagues (2005), participants observed a suspect confessing during a police interview. The results indicated that participants were more likely to perceive the confession as genuine when they viewed the confession
congratulate them for being neat and tidy
According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly
self-awareness
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself is called
mistakenly "remembered" having felt the same as they do now
Researchers had students write essays opposing student control over university curricula. When asked to recall how they had felt about the same issue a week earlier, most of the students
attribution theory
The theory that explains people's behavior by attributing it to internal dispositions or external situations is called
confirmation bias
Sharon typically watches televised news stations that support her existing political beliefs. She is less inclined to watch the news on other stations, as it may disprove her preconceptions. Sharon's approach illustrates the
we form additional reasons for that decision or choice.
Once we make a decision or choice, and feel some cognitive dissonance,
self worth
Dissonance conditions do indeed arouse tension, especially when those conditions threaten
lead to less enjoyment of the activity
According to the overjustification effect, promising children a reward for doing what they already intrinsically enjoy will
affect
In the ABCs of attitudes, "A" stands for
role
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave is what social psychologists call a(n)
more likely
If you are asked to participate in a research study without knowing the start time, you are _______ to participate than if you were aware that the study began at 7 am.
$1; interesting and enjoyable
9.
A research study had experimental participants perform a dull task but paid them to lie by telling a prospective participant that the task had been enjoyable. Results showed that the participants who were paid _______ came to believe that the task had been _______.
agrees to give the speech without special incentives
Though she is opposed to capital punishment, Lisa is asked to give a speech in favor of it to round out a class debate. Dissonance theory predicts that her true attitude will undergo the most change if she
increased
Although your mother had to nag you to clean your room as a child, she always praised your desire to keep your room clean and orderly when you finished. Her comments likely _______ your intrinsic motivation to maintain a clean and orderly environment on your own.
cognitive dissonance
When external inducements are insufficient to justify our behavior, we reduce dissonance by justifying the behavior internally. Which of the following theories explains this insufficient justification effect?
attitudes follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility.
If you are studying because you want to do well in a course and truly want to understand the material, you are more likely to want to study in the future as compared to those students who view studying as compulsory. Your situation is an example of how
foot-in-the-door
Research in France found that having people first sign a petition against landmines increased the likelihood that Internet users would contribute to a fund for victims of landmines. This is an example of the _______ phenomenon.
cognition
In the ABCs of attitudes, "C" stands for
pay him to play and then offer him less and less.
Myra's neighbor, a little boy, practices his saxophone loudly and annoyingly. According to the overjustification effect, if Myra wants to get him to quit playing, she should
You can't sense how someone else is feeling if you mirror their facial expressions.
Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
Although you were opposed to the war with Iraq, your attitude changed when you were required to report on the justifications for it at your job as a newspaper journalist. Which theory best explains the change in your attitude?
internally; external
The insufficient justification effect involves reducing dissonance by _______ justifying one's behavior when _______ justification is insufficient
self-presentation; self-justification
Impression management is to _______ as cognitive dissonance is to _______.
upgrading; downgrading
After spending a great deal of time researching vehicles, Linda makes a purchase. After having owned the vehicle for several months, she experiences dissonance and wonders if she made the right decision with her purchase. According to dissonance theory, we would expect Linda to reduce her dissonance by _______ the chosen vehicle and _______ the unchosen vehicles.
expressed attitudes
When social psychologists try to measure attitudes of people they end up measuring
saying it changes our beliefs or feelings
Higgins and Rholes (1978) found that when people say something positive to others when told to supported the research that
upgrading; downgrading
After much deliberation, you decide on a college to attend. After you have made your decision, you find yourself reducing any dissonance by _______ the chosen university and _______ the unchosen universities.
self perception
Which of the following theories explains the insufficient justification effect by claiming that we explain our behavior by noting the conditions under which it occurs?
disparage the vistim to justify behavior
Research indicates that harming an innocent victim, especially voluntarily, leads one to
principle of aggregation
Although you may spend the evening surfing the Internet rather than studying, you have generally been quite a disciplined student throughout your academic career and have always held the attitude that studying is important. The relationship between your studying behavior and your attitude toward studying can best be described by which social psychological term?
self-perception theory
Which theory explains our conclusion that we must be anxious because we woke up before dawn?
tension
The major difference between the dissonance theory and the self-perception theory is that the former relies on the motivating effects of _______, while the latter does not.
he did the task for an intrinsic reason`
The best way to cultivate Mark's enjoyment of a task that is not intrinsically appealing to him is to have him comply with the behavior and then suggest that
cognitive dissonance theory
Although you were opposed to the war with Iraq, your attitude changed when you were required to report on the justifications for it at your job as a newspaper journalist. Which theory best explains the change in your attitude?
the principle of aggregation
The finding that religious attitudes can predict the total quantity of religious behaviors over time is an example of
it is best to work on specific situations
According to studies on implicit attitudes, which of the following statements about changing behaviors through persuasion is the most accurate?
self-perception theory
Which of the following theories assumes that our actions are self-revealing?
decreased
An example of the overjustification effect in the text describes how the number of books Myers' son read ______ after the local library provided an incentive for children to read 10 books in three months.
public conformity; private beliefs
As mentioned in the textbook, the daily flag salute by school children in the U.S. is an attempt to use _______ to build _______.
downgrading
You are fortunate to receive multiple job offers after graduating from college. You find the decision-making very difficult, but once you decide on an offer to accept, you notice yourself _______ the job offers that you did not accept
roles that shape our behavior
You are teaching students, and unlike when you were student teaching, you find that the role of teacher feels more comfortable. This is an example of
cognitive dissonance
Which theory best explains why 40 percent of smokers in the U.S. judge smoking as not very harmful?
7 %
Diener and Wallbom (1976) found that when research participants were instructed to stop working on a problem after a bell sounded, 71 percent continued working when left alone. How many continued to work after the bell if they were made self-aware by working in front of a mirror?
go ahead and take action even we dont feel like it
If we want to change ourselves in some important way, it is best to
act as if you do
The research indicates that if you wish to love someone more, you should
cognitive dissonance
When external inducements are insufficient to justify our behavior, we reduce dissonance by justifying the behavior internally. Which of the following theories explains this insufficient justification effect?
start the paper and you will feel better about wanting to do it
Your research paper, which you don't want to write, is due in two months. The best way deal with it, according to the research, is to
measures both conscious and unconscious attitudes
The Implicit Association Test (IAT)
poor
People's attitude toward religion is a(n) _______ predictor of whether they will go to worship next weekend
the smallest possible incentive
According to the dissonance theory, managers, teachers, and parents should use _______ to elicit the desired behavior.
more likely
People are _________ to comply with a large request if they comply with a small request first.
self-perception theory
Jeremy loses his former interest in doing arithmetic after his teacher promises him $1 for each problem he solves correctly. Which theory best explains Jeremy's loss of interest in arithmetic?
hardly ever
In 1969, social psychologist Allan Wicker completed a review of dozens of research studies and concluded that people's expressed attitudes _______ predicted their varying behaviors.
people feel ythey have some choice in their behavior
The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is strongest when
moral hypocrisy
According to your text, _______ is the term Batson and his colleagues (2002) used to describe the tendency to appear moral while avoiding the costs of doing so.